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Describe The Physiography of India

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India is called the ‘Epitome of The World.’ Everything that one sees in the outside world can be seen in our great country. From the tall mountains to the raging and calm rivers, from the valleys to the plains, from the desert to the jungles, from snowfall to extreme heat, from floods to extreme drought - India has everything to offer. India is such a geographically diverse country that once you travel the length and breadth of the country, you will not need to see the world.

Below The Land

Before talking about the outer physiography of India, it is to be noted that deep below the land there lie the Indian tectonic plate and the Indo Australian Tectonic plate.

The Physiographic Divisions

India is divided into five physiographic divisions. These are described in details here.


1. The Northern and North Eastern Mountain

In the North, the astounding range of the Himalayan Mountain stands tall. It starts from Jammu and Kashmir and goes on to cover Ladakh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Assam and West Bengal. The Himalayan Mountain range is divided into three parts - Himadri, Himachal and Siwaliks. 


Earlier, the mountain range protected against the outside enemies. Now, it protects against the biting cold air in the winter. There are many valleys in the northern part of India. They are beautiful to watch and spend time on. One of the “chhota char dhams” Kedarnath, falls in this Mountain range.


The holy Ganga, originates from the Gangotri glacier in Uttaranchal in the Northern part of India. Apart from the Ganga, there are many other beautiful rivers here like the Brahmaputra or the Yamuna.


This physiographic part of India is known for its scenic mountains, green valleys, gorges, the serene rivers and above all the friendly hill people. Let’s not forget, this is also the remotest and difficult to live part of India where our soldiers guard the country without any complain.


2. The Northern Plains 

After the Himalayan mountain range ends, the Northern plain begins and continues till the peninsular plateau. The sediments from the rivers are deposited in these parts of the country. As a result, the land is very fertile. That is why the states in this region are known for agriculture. For example Punjab is known for the Green Revolution. This region is also known for the deep and dense forest. Interestingly, Rajasthan, too, falls in this region. Rajasthan has arid land. It boasts of the beautiful yet cruel Thar Desert. 


3. The Peninsular Plateau

As the Northern Plains start reaching its end, the Peninsular Plateau raises its head. It starts from the end of Indo-Gangetic plains and stretches till the narrow end point of the country in the South. It is called the peninsular plateau because it is bound by the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal on three sides and has land on only one side.


The chain of Mountains in the western part of the plateau is known as the Western Ghats. It is one of the UN World Heritage Sites. The mountain range on the eastern part is known as the Eastern Ghats. These two mountain ranges are full of interesting plants and animals. 


4. The Coastal Plains

Naturally, a country that is covered by oceans and seas on the three sides must have a beautiful coast line. This coastline falls under the Coastal Plains. The coastline that is located on the side of the Western Ghats is known as the Western Coastal Plain and the one located beside the Eastern Ghats is known as the Eastern coastal plain. The Western coastal plain starts from the great Rann of Kutch in the north to Kanyakumari in the south and the eastern one extends from the Ganga delta to Kanyakumari.


5. The Islands

India has many Islands too. As many as 1208 Islands are there in the country. The main two Island clusters are- Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea. Unfortunately due to the rising sea level, many small Islands are getting submerged in the water.


Thus, roaming around India is akin to roaming around the world.

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