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Cyclone is used to produce

Last updated date: 24th Jul 2024
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Hint: A cyclotron is used to produce large velocity and large energy ions. The benefits of cyclotron are that they are utilized in the knowledge of EM waves, in nuclear physics, and in the pharmaceutical field to manage cancer. Aside from so many benefits of the cyclotron, some of the problems and limitations of a cyclotron are that the activity of ions or particles cannot be raised after a specific limit.

Complete step-by-step solution:
Ion beams from cyclotrons can be utilized, as in proton treatment, to perceive the body and kill growths by radiation destruction while minimizing loss to healthy tissue along their way. Cyclotron beams can be utilized to bombard different atoms to generate short-lived positron-emitting isotopes fit for PET imaging.
A cyclotron is a sort of particle accelerator created by Ernest O. Lawrence. A cyclotron quickens charged particles outwards from the middle of a flat cylindrical vacuum container along a helical path. The particles are kept to a helical trajectory by a motionless magnetic field and accelerated by a rapidly changing electric field.
A cyclotron stimulates a charged particle beam utilizing a high-frequency alternating voltage implemented between two hollow "D"-shaped sheet metal plates called "dees" inside a vacuum container. The dees are put face to face with a small gap between them, producing a cylindrical space within them for the particles to pass. The particles are inserted into the middle of this space. The dees are placed between the poles of a giant electromagnet which uses a static magnetic field B perpendicular to the electrode level. The magnetic field creates the particles' path to change in a circle due to the Lorentz strength perpendicular to their direction of movement.
If the particles' speeds were consistent, they would move in a circular path inside the dees under the force of the magnetic field. However, a radio frequency alternating voltage of various thousand volts is utilized between the dees. The voltage generates an oscillating electric field in the passage between the dees that stimulates the particles. The frequency is installed so that the particles perform one circuit during an individual cycle of the voltage. To accomplish this, the frequency must meet the particle's cyclotron vibration frequency.
$f = \dfrac{qB}{2 \pi m}$
B is the strength of magnetic field, q is the particle's electric charge, and m is the charged particle's mass. Each period after the particles move to the dee plate, the polarity of the RF voltage changes. Therefore, each moment the particles pass the gap from one dee plate to the other, the electric field is in the right direction to stimulate them. The particles' progressing speed due to these forces cause them to go in a larger radius circle with every rotation, so the particles travel in a spiral path outward from the middle to the dees rim. When they enter the rim, a small voltage on a metal plate diverges the beam, so it exits the dees by a small gap between them, and connects a target located at the departure point at the chamber rim, or drops the cyclotron by an evacuated beam tube to crash a remote target. Various materials may be utilized for the target, and the nuclear reactions due to the strikes will produce secondary particles, which may be conducted outside of the cyclotron and into devices for analysis.

Note: The advantage of the cyclotron design across the existing electrostatic accelerators was that the particles were only accelerated once by the voltage. The particles' energy was similar to the accelerating charge on the machine, which was defined by air categorization to a few million volts. In the cyclotron, the particles meet the accelerating voltage often during their spiral path and are stimulated often so that the output energy can be many occasions, the accelerating voltage.