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C-peptide of human insulin is __________
(a)A part of the mature insulin molecule
(b)Responsible for the formation of disulphide bridges
(c)Removed during maturation of proinsulin to insulin
(d)Responsible for its biological activity

Last updated date: 11th Jun 2024
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Hint It is a polypeptide chain and is made of 31 amino acids that interfaces insulin's A-chain to its B-chain in the proinsulin particle. With regards to diabetes or hypoglycemia, an estimation of blood serum levels can be utilized to recognize various conditions with comparative clinical highlights.

Complete answer
In vertebrates, including men, insulin is incorporated as pro-hormone which should be handled before it turns into complete development and functional hormone. It contains an additional stretch called the C peptide which is taken out during development into insulin.

Additional information
In the insulin combination pathway, the first preproinsulin is moved into the endoplasmic reticulum of beta cells of the pancreas with A-chain, a C-peptide, a B-chain, and a signal succession. The signal sequence is severed from the N-end of the peptide by a signal peptidase, leaving proinsulin. After proinsulin is bundled into vesicles in the Golgi contraption (beta-granules), the C-peptide is taken out, leaving the A-chain and B-chain bound together by disulfide bonds that comprise the insulin particle.

So the correct answer to the above question is ‘Removed during maturation of proinsulin to insulin’.

Note: C-peptide has been shown to bind to the surface of a number of cell types such as neuronal, endothelial, fibroblast, and renal tubular, at nanomolar concentrations to a receptor that is likely G-protein-coupled. The signal activates Calcium-dependent intracellular signaling pathways such as MAPK, PLC𝛾, and PKC, leading to upregulation of a range of transcription factors as well as eNOS and Na+K+ATPase activities. The latter two enzymes are known to have diminished exercises in patients with type I diabetes and have been ensnared in the advancement of long haul inconveniences of type I diabetes, for example, fringe and autonomic neuropathy.