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What is common to the techniques (i) in vitro fertilization (ii) Cryopreservation and (iii) tissue culture?
A. All are in situ conservation methods.
B. All are ex situ conservation methods.
C. All require ultra-modern equipment and large space.
D. All are the methods of conservation of extinct organisms.

Last updated date: 21st Jun 2024
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Hint: These techniques involve the preservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. It also involves conservation of genetic resources, wild and cultivated or species, and also draws on a diverse body of techniques and facilities.

Complete Answer:
(i) In vitro fertilisation (IVF): It is a process where an egg is fertilised with sperm outside the body, The process involves removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise. After the fertilised egg (zygote) undergoes embryo culture for 2–6 days, it is then implanted in the same or another woman's uterus for a successful pregnancy.
(ii) Cryopreservation: The process of cooling and storing cells, tissues, or organs at very low temperatures to maintain their viability. For example, the technology which involves cooling and storing of cells at a temperature which should be below the freezing point which allows high rates of survivability of the cells upon thawing.
(iii) Tissue culture: It is a method of biological research in which fragments of tissue from an animal or plant are transferred to an artificial environment by which they continue to survive and function.
Now the common thing among all the techniques is all are ex-situ conservation methods. Ex-situ conservation is the preservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats.

So, the correct answer is option (B) i.e, All are ex situ conservation methods.

Note: The ex-situ conservation strategies include botanical and zoological gardens, conservation stands and gene, pollen, seed, seedling, tissue culture and DNA banks.