Hint: Plant breeding is the scientific method by which the characteristics of plants are altered and a new variety of plants consisting of the desired characteristics is created. To improve the consistency, viability and nutritional value of products, this method is used.
Complete answer: Hybridization is a process by which genetic variation produces multiple varieties of species. In this process to produce hybrids, crossbreeding is done between genetically different parents. It is referred to as plant breeding as well. The process aims at controlling plants and generating plant species with more or different characteristics that are desired. The developed species or hybrids are more suitable for cultivation with high yield and high resistant capacity through the process. Polyploidy is produced by the offspring and can be fertile in nature, partially fertile or sterile. Plant breeding is undertaken primarily for the purpose of increasing the quality and nutritional value of food. Their formed hybrid species can survive different environmental conditions and improve resistance to diseases. This method of plant breeding undergoes certain steps that are as follows:
In the first set of diversity, i.e., varieties of species possessing and maintaining the desired characteristic. This inventory is called the collection of germplasm. The next step is the collection of desired features, i.e. the collected sample to be examined and the plants with desirable characters to be identified. Only the pure one has to be chosen. The hybridization method is applied to the chosen plants after selection. A plant is selected as a male parent during hybridization and the pollen grain is gathered. After that, another plant, which is called a female parent, is dusted over. Through the crossing, Progeny was formed and checked for the optimal character combination. Finally, by producing plants in an experimental area, the selected plants are tested. This development must continue for at least three sessions or until the necessary features are achieved.
All components of plant breeding include processes such as the crossing of plants with a pure line character, selection of plants with desirable qualities and their artificial selection, obtaining a better crop yield to improve nutrition and resistance to diseases.
So, the correct answer is choice D-All of the above.
Note: A very popular and useful scientific method of genetic variation is plant breeding. In this process, with the desired mixture, two or more types of the plant go through the crossing and create a new type of breed. Some steps follow the method of plant breeding, such as the collection of varieties and their selection as the parent plant. Then their crossing takes place and progeny is produced and finally, for a minimum of three sessions, it is to be tested in an experimental area.