Question
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Bessemer converter is used for the preparation of :
(A) Steel
(B) Wrought iron
(C) Pig iron
(D) Cast iron

Answer Verified Verified
Hint: Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. Pig iron is also known as crude iron. It is obtained by the heating of iron ore in a blast furnace. Wrought iron and cast iron are alloys of iron. Wrought iron has lower carbon content (0.08%) than that in cast iron (2 to 4%).

Complete answer:
- Bessemer converter was the first process discovered for the industrial production of steel from pig iron. When iron ores are heated to extract iron (the process is called smelting), concentration of carbon in the iron is more than the amount required in steel. To convert it into steel, iron is processed to reduce the carbon content and other impurities.
- Bessemer converter has inner lining of silica and dolomite ($MgC{{O}_{3}}.CaC{{O}_{3}}$). Bessemer converter is based on the principle of removal of impurities of pig iron by oxidation. Hot air is blown through the molten iron to remove impurities present in the pig iron. The form of iron obtained after oxidation is pure wrought iron. It is then mixed with an alloy of iron, manganese and carbon which is called spiegeleisen to obtain steel.
- Wrought iron is prepared in a reverberatory furnace which is also called a pudding furnace.
- Pig iron is extracted by smelting of iron ore in a blast furnace.
- Cast iron is also obtained from a blast furnace.

Note: Though wrought iron is also produced during the production of steel in the Bessemer process. The wrought iron produced is further used to make steel.
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