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ASSERTION: The terminal voltage will become zero if a battery is short circuited.
REASON: In the situation of a short circuit, the current will be zero.
A. Both the assertion as well the reason are correct and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion.
B. both the assertion and the reason statements are correct, but the reason mentioned is not the correct explanation of the assertion.
C. assertion is correct, but the reason is an incorrect statement.
D. even though the assertion is incorrect, the reason is a correct statement.

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Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: The current is non-zero as in a real battery. And also the internal resistance is not zero as it is an inbuilt property. The current through the battery will be the ratio of the emf of the battery to the internal resistance of the battery. This information will help you in solving this question.

Complete answer:
The current flow through a short circuited battery is found by taking the ratio of electromotive force of the battery to the internal resistance of the battery. In the case of a short-circuited battery, the current flow through the battery can be shown as the equation,
$I=\dfrac{E}{r}$
Where $E$ be the mf of the battery and $r$ be the internal resistance of the cell. In a short circuited battery, the current flow will be the maximum as there is a very low impedance found. And the internal resistance will also be non-zero which is possible only in the ideal condition. Therefore we can say that as the current is non zero, the reason statement given is incorrect. And also as the short circuited battery is not having any external load, the terminal voltage of the battery will be zero. Therefore the assertion is the correct statement. In short the assertion is correct but the reason is wrong.

So, the correct answer is “Option C”.

Note:
Short circuit is the process of an unintended path for the current occurring with a very low value of the impedance. The opposite of a short circuit is given as an open circuit. In this condition an infinite resistance is present between the two nodes.