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Assertion: Addition of ethyl alcohol to acetic acid-water mixture gives rise to a fruity smell.
Reason: Ethyl alcohol possesses a fruity smell.
1. Both the assertion and reason are CORRECT and the reason is the CORRECT explanation for the assertion.
2. Both the assertion and reason are CORRECT but the reason is NOT THE CORRECT explanation for the assertion.
3. Assertion is CORRECT but the reason is INCORRECT
4. Assertion is INCORRECT but the reason is CORRECT.

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Last updated date: 23rd Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Acetic acid with molecular formula $C{H_3}COOH$ is an organic acid. Ethyl alcohol has a molecular formula $C{H_3}C{H_2}OH$ .
-When an organic acid-water mixture undergoes reaction with alcohol it forms an ester.
-Esters are organic compounds which have a characteristic fruity smell.

Complete step by step solution:
Let us first understand what exactly is an organic acid.
-$R - COOH$ functional group compounds are called organic acid. $R$ can be an alkyl group such as $C{H_3},C{H_3}C{H_2}$ and It can also be a $H$ , and in this case the acid we get is called formic acid and it has the molecular formula $HCOOH$. When these acids are dissolved in water, they dissociate to give protonated water, but since they do not dissociate completely and the products and reactions are in dynamic equilibrium, organic acids are weak acids.
${H_3}{O^ + }$ is responsible for the acidic nature of acetic acid.
-Alcohol is an organic compound which has the general molecular formula as $R - OH$. The $R$ group can be an alkyl group or it can be a $H$ , if $R$ group is $C{H_3}$ the alcohol is $C{H_3} - OH$ and is called methanol and if $R$ group is $C{H_3}C{H_2}$ we get $C{H_3}C{H_2}OH$ and is called ethanol or ethyl alcohol.

-When alcohol and acid are made to react , the product we get is an ester. This reaction is called esterification. Esters are organic compounds with the general formula $RCOOR'$ Where $R - COO$ is from the acid and $R'$ is from the alcohol. These compounds are characterised by a fruity smell.

Let us look at the reaction of ethanol and acetic acid more carefully to understand the product.
\[C{H_3}COOH + C{H_3}C{H_2}OH\xrightarrow[{{H_2}S{O_4}}]{{concentrated}}C{H_3}COOC{H_3}C{H_2} + {H_2}O\]
-The product we get is called ethyl ethanoate which is an ester and the side product is water.
$C{H_3}COO = $ ethanoate group and $C{H_3}C{H_2}$ = ethyl group
-The ethyl group migrates from the alcohol and the ethanoate group is from the acid.
-Ethyl alcohol does not have a fruity smell instead this ester has a characteristic fruity smell.
Hence, Option 3 is the correct answer.

Note:
It is Important to carry out the reaction in presence of Sulphuric Acid, this is to eliminate water as the side product. If water is not eliminated, water will react with ester and the reverse reaction will take place. We will get acid and alcohol back and no ester will be left.