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Arrange the following in chronological order
A. Napoleonic wars
B. Liberal revolution
C. Romanticism
D. New conservatism

Last updated date: 16th Jun 2024
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Hint: The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts that happened in history. Liberal Revolution was a Portuguese political revolution that began with military insurrection in Porto city. Romanticism or Romantic era was an artistic, literary, intellectual and musical movement that originated in Europe. New Conservatism reformed the platform of Republican Party, transforming it from a laissez-faire, pro-business party into one more concerned with individual liberties and traditional Christian morals.

Complete answer:
The Napoleonic Wars led by Napoleon I, started from 1803 to1815, were a series of major conflicts pitting French Empire and its allies against a fluctuating array of the European powers formed into different coalitions. It resulted in a brief period of French domination over most of continental Europe. The wars stemmed from unresolved disputes associated with French Revolution and its resultant conflict.
The Liberal Revolution of 1820 was a Portuguese political revolution which erupted in 1820. It began with military insurrection in the city of Porto, in northern Portugal, that peacefully and quickly spread to the rest of the country. The Revolution resulted in the return in 1821 of Portuguese Court to Portugal from Brazil, where it had fled during the Peninsular War. Also it initiated a constitutional period in which the 1822 Constitution was implemented and ratified. The movement's liberal ideas had an important influence on the Portuguese society and political organization in the nineteenth century.
Romanticism also called the Romantic era was an artistic, musical, intellectual and literary movement which originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century. In the approximate period from 1800 to 1850, in most areas it was at its peak. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on individualism and emotion as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was embodied most strongly in music, visual arts, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, chess, education, social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a complex and significant effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing radicalism, liberalism, conservatism, and nationalism.
New Conservatism marked a change in the Republican Party from the more moderate stance of President Eisenhower to a more extreme stance espousing traditional values, small government, constitutionalism, states-rights, and free-market economics. The rise of New Conservatism began with the politics of Barry Goldwater and economics of Milton Friedman.

Hence, the correct answer is option (B).

Note: Chronology is a science of arranging events in the order of occurrence in time. Consider, for example, use of a timeline or sequence of events. It is also the determination of actual temporal sequence of the past events. Chronology is a part of the periodization.
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