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How are organisms named and classified?

Last updated date: 18th Jun 2024
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Hint: Organism is a kind of life composed of mutually interdependent aspects that sustain several significant processes. In biology, an organism is a particular entity that exemplifies the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form".

Complete answer:
Binomial nomenclature is the biological system of naming the organisms in which the name is composed of two terms, the first term is the 'generic name' that indicates the genus and the second term is the 'specific epithet' that indicates the species of the organism.” Such a name is called a scientific name or a binomial name.
The naming follows certain conventions.
- Each scientific name has two parts:
Generic name - specifies the genus name.
Specific epithet - specifies the species name.
- The scientific names of organisms are usually Latin. Hence, they are written in italics.
- Since the scientific names of the organisms have a Latin origin, so when the names are handwritten, they are underlined or italicized if typed.
- The name of the genus should always start with a capital letter and the name of the species should start with a small letter.
- The scientific name of the tiger can be written as Panthera tigris. ‘Panthera’ represents the genus and ‘tigris’ represents the species or specific epithet.
- The scientific name of humans can be written as Homo sapiens. ‘Homo’ represents the genus and ‘sapiens’ represents the species name.
Taxonomy is the science by which organisms are categorized and positioned into hierarchical sections that indicate their evolutionary connections. The eight main categories, so as of diminishing inclusiveness, are (I) Domain, (2) Kingdom, (3) Division or Phylum, (4) Class, (5) Order, (6) Family, (7) Genus, and (8) Species. The scientific term of an organism is organized of its genus title and species title. A hierarchical theory was first employed by Aristotle, but in the middle-1700s, Linnaeus put the organization for modem taxonomy. In the 1860s, an evolutionary concept proposed by Darwin clarified the experimental similarities and variations among organisms, and modern taxonomists aim to classify organisms consistent with their evolutionary relationship.
Organisms are categorized by taxonomy into committees such as multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms particularly as protists, bacteria, and archaea. All categories of organisms are eligible for reproduction, development and improvement, maintenance, and some degree of reaction to stimuli. Humans, squids, mushrooms, and vascular plants are illustrations of multicellular organisms that determine how to overspecialize tissues and organs during growth.
An organism could also be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote. Prokaryotes are exemplified by two separate domains – bacteria and archaea. Eukaryotic organisms are defined by the presence of a membrane-bound cell nucleus and comprise extra membrane-bound compartments called organelles (such as mitochondria in animals and plants and plastids in plants and algae, all commonly considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria). Fungi, animals, and plants are representations of kingdoms of organisms within the eukaryotes.

Note: A taxon (plural: taxa) is an organization of organisms that are established as a unit. This can be particular or common. For the case, we could illustrate that all humans are a taxon at the species level since they are all the same species, but we could also say that humans along with all other primates are a taxon at the order category, since they all refer to the order Primates.