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How are collision theory and temperature related?

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: The collision theory is related to the chemical reactions. The molecules of the starting materials collide with each other to generate new molecules. The temperature also plays a role in chemical reactions.

Complete step by step answer:
The collision theory gives a concept for the success of a chemical reaction. For a chemical reaction to go smoothly and effectively, the following conditions must be satisfied.
a. The molecules should collide with energy equal to the activation energy.
b. The molecules must collide in proper orientation to create effective collision.
c. The bonds between the molecules break down properly and form new molecules by combination.
Collision theory is also related to the kinetic-molecular theory of particles. In kinetic molecular theory it is told that the particles are in constant motion which collides with each other. Also the collision should be effective which is achieved in proper orientation with minimum amount of energy.
Now the rate of a reaction is enhanced in two ways. This is done either by increasing the frequency of the collisions at a time or by increasing the fraction of the collisions. These two conditions are dependents on several other factors as below
i. pressure
ii. temperature
iii. surface area
iv. amount of particles
v. energy of particles
The kinetic energy of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature. As temperature increases, the molecules gain more energy and move faster. Therefore with rise in the temperature, the probability that molecules will be moving with the necessary activation energy gets higher for a reaction.
Hence when the temperature of molecules is greater, the movement and also the energy of molecules will increase. Hence the frequency of collision will also increase leading to more number of effective collisions which results in increased reaction rates.

So if the speed of the particles is increased by increasing the temperature, more number of particles collide at a time and also the rate of the reaction is increased. The temperature of a reaction also affects both the frequency and effectiveness of collisions.