Question
Answers

Anemophilous flowers have:
A. Sessile stigma
B. Small, smooth stigma
C. Colored and scented flowers
D. Large feathery stigma

Answer
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Hint: Anemophilous flowers are wind pollinated flowers. They are usually small and inconspicuous and do not produce a scent or nectar. They produce a large amount of dry pollen and their stigma is developed in such a way that they can trap the pollen that is present in the air.

Complete answer:
> Wind-pollinated flowers are known as anemophilous flowers. They have small, conspicuous, thick, well-exposed and feathery stigmas which are easier to capture wind-blown pollen. The wind pollinated flowers do not bear any petals. The stigma and stamens are more exposed to the wind.

> Sessile stigma has limited style and stigma is directly placed on the ovaries. The presence of sessile stigma is not exposed in structure as a result they cannot collect pollen grains that are blown due to the wind.

> A small and smooth stigma has less exposure to wind and less exposed surface area is not able to collect pollen driven by the wind. Also the smooth surface of the stigma does not capture the pollen that is blown up by wind.

> Insect-pollinated flowers are huge, brightly colored and pleasantly scented. They possess nectarines present on the receptacles at the base of flower whorls. These flowers in order to attract insects produce large amounts of nectar. In the process of wind pollination, the flowers must produce a large number of pollen grains but they must be small so that they can be carried easily and it does not require scented colorful flowers.

Hence, The correct answer is option (D).

Additional information:
Anemophilous or wind-pollinated flowers are typically tiny and inconspicuous and do not have a fragrance or contain nectar. Anthers may produce a large number of pollen grains, while stamens are usually long and protrude out of the flower.

The stigma is the receptacle component of the carpel, the female floral whorl. Pollen grains are deposited in the stigma during the fertilization process. In wind-pollinated flowers, a long and feathery stigma is usually found. Their feathery nature helps to capture wind-borne pollen grains.

Plants benefit from the long and feather-like stigma of pollen gathering. The different pollen agents are to be attracted by the brightly colored petals. Because the pollen is light and smooth, the stigma can quickly be pollinated by wind-blown pollen.

Note: The anemophilous plants bear well-exposed stamens in such a way that pollens are exposed to wind currents. They also have large and feathery stigmas that can easily capture airborne pollen grains. The pollen grains from these plants are much smaller and lighter than entomophilic (insect-pollinated) pollen and have very low nutritional value for insects. However, insects often collect pollen from staminate anemophilous flowers at times when high-protein pollen from entomophilous flowers is scarce.