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Advantage of cleistogamy is:
A) Higher genetic variability
B) More vigorous offspring
C) No dependence on pollinators
D) Vivipary

seo-qna
Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint:-Sexual reproduction in plants occurs via pollination. The male gametes (pollen grains) from the anther are transferred to the stigma (the female reproductive part of the flower). This transfer is called pollination. Sometimes, the flowers require external agents for this transfer. These agents can be biotic like animals, insects, etc. also called pollinators or abiotic (wind, water).

Complete Answer:-
Pollination can be broadly classified into self-pollination and cross-pollination. Self-pollination occurs within the same flower (autogamy) or two flowers (geitonogamy) of the same plant. On the other hand, cross-pollination occurs within flowers on two different plants. Cross-pollinating plants require the help of an external agent.
Some flowers have both male and female reproductive parts. Cleistogamy is a condition where only self-pollination occurs because the flowers close themselves in such a way that pollen grains are transferred from the anther to the stigma of the same flower. An example of a cleistogamous flower is viola. One of the advantages of cleistogamy is that these flowers do not require the help of pollinators to carry the pollen grains.
But because these flowers self-pollinate over a period of time there is little genetic diversity in their off-springs. Self-pollination also increases the probability of inheriting defective genes from the parent plant. Vivipary is a type of seed germination observed in mangroves. While the fruit is still joined to the parent plant, the seed germinates inside it because the environmental conditions are not favorable.
Thus, the right option is C.

Note:- Besides the above given advantage, cleistogamy has few other advantages. Cleistogamous flowers do not have to waste resources to make itself look attractive to pollinators nor does it produce fragrance or nectar to attract them. They also produce less pollen grains. The opposite of these flowers are the chasmogamous flowers. The reproductive parts of these flowers are not hidden or enclosed and these flowers require the help of pollinators.