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How can a single mango plant produce different varieties of mangoes?

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Hint: Grafting is defined as a type of vegetative propagation that is performed in plants where the two parts of related plants are joined and then grown as a single plant. Grafting is associated with a better and quicker yield of good varieties of plants that take years to produce fruits.

Complete answer:
Grafting is a kind of vegetative reproduction or horticulture technique in plants which is well used by the gardeners.
In grafting, a plant is added into another plant, so as to be nourished by it and united with it. Grafting is especially showing high rates in dicotyledonous plants, where the stem has a cambium layer. Some common plants that can be grown by grafting are apple, mango, and citrus.

1.A graft needs presence of two parts - rootstock and scion. The plant that is opted for its roots is called the rootstock or stock. While the other plant opted for its leaves, flowers, or fruits, is called the scion. The process of joining these two that is stock and scion is known as inosculation.
Rootstocks are usually taken and opted for by those plants which have a better rooting and transportation system. It should be diseased free with enhanced resistance against insects and climatic conditions such as heat, cold, or drought.
2.The scion should be that of high quality and have an advanced variety of fruits and bear vegetative characters that are commercially and aesthetically appealing.
3.The vascular cambium tissues of the stock and scion plants must be associated in contact with each other for their cambiums to form a connection.
Grafting ensures that the plants can have many different varieties on the same tree.

Note: Grafting is usually associated with plants that are in continuous need for cross- pollination for seeds to set. In these kinds of cases, the scion of the male plant is usually grafted with the female plant. Many plants use up to 8-12 years to flower and produce fruit. With the process of grafting, this time period can be reduced dramatically.