What is Mathematics?

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What is the Definition of Mathematics

Mathematics is a subject of rationality, the science of structural relation and order that has originated from elemental practices of counting, measuring, and explaining the shapes of objects. In addition, it deals with quantitative calculation and logical reasoning. Mathematics thus simply means to study, to learn or gain knowledge. The theories given in mathematics help us understand and solve different kinds of problems in academic as well as in real life situations. Solving mathematical problems is perhaps the best brain exercise.

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History of Mathematics

Now that you are aware of what mathematics is, let’s get to know about the evolution of this historical subject. The development of mathematics has involved an increasing intensity of idealization and abstraction of its subject matter. The subject has been explored by a number of mathematicians around the world since centuries, in distinct civilizations. Archimedes (287-212 BC), from the BC century is remembered as the Father of Mathematics. He introduced formulas to calculate the volume and surface area of solids. On the other hand, Aryabhatt, born in 476 CE, is renowned as the Father of Indian Mathematics.

Since the 17th century, maths has been a vital supplement to the physical sciences and technology, and in more recent times it has presumed to play a similar role in the quantitative aspects of the life sciences.

The study of mathematics started with the Pythagoreans, as a “demonstrative discipline” during the 6th century BC. The term mathematics evolved from the Greek word “mathema”, which implies “subject of instruction”.

Another mathematician, named Euclid, introduced the axiom, theorems, proofs and postulates, which are also widely used in current mathematics.

History of Mathematics is a primitive study and is defined by each part of the world, in a differential method. Various mathematicians have provided different theories for many concepts, which we are now applying in modern mathematics.

Numbers that we use for calculations had variations during the medieval period. The Romans bring into being the Roman numerals which use English alphabets in order to represent a number, such as:













Roman Numeral











Branches of Mathematics

The main branches of mathematics include:

  1. Algebra

  2. Number System

  3. Geometry

  4. Trigonometry

  5. Topology

  6. Calculus

  7. Probability and Statistics

Rules In Mathematics

A common rule used in maths is the BODMAS rule. According to this rule, the arithmetic operations are carried out based on the brackets and order of operations. The full form of BODMAS can be easily understood with the given description:


B: Brackets

O: Orders

D: Division

M: Multiplication

A: Addition

S: Subtraction

Thus, the 1st priority given here to the brackets then;

Division> multiplication > addition > subtraction

For instance, if we need to solve [10+ (4 x 10) ÷2], then applying the BODMAS rule, first multiply 4 and 10, within the brackets.

→ 10 + (4 x 10) ÷2

= 10 + 40 ÷ 2

Now divide 40 by 2

→ 10 + 20

→ 30

Class Wise Important Topics in Mathematics

Below are some important topics for each Class (from 1 to 12) which is covered under maths.

Class 1

  1. Numbers In Words

  2. Shapes

  3. Addition And Subtraction Of Integers

Class 2

  1. Place Value

  2. Counting Numbers

Class 3

  1. Introduction To Data

  2. Comparing Fractions

  3. Multiplication Tables

  4. Multiplication And Division Of Integers

Class 4

  1. Introduction to Large Numbers

  2. Factors And Multiples

  3. Multiplying Fractions

  4. Multiplication And Division Of Decimals

Class 5

  1. Introduction to Lines and Angles

  2. Introduction To Area

  3. Area Of A Square  

  4. Dividing Fractions

  5. Addition and Subtraction of Decimals

Class 6

  1. Introduction To Algebra

  2. Integers and Fractions

  3. Whole Numbers

Class 7 

  1. Introduction To Lines, Angles and Triangles

  2. Means Of Comparing Quantities: Percentage

  3. Concept of Visualising Solid Shapes

Class 8

  1. Introduction To Rational Numbers, Squares and Square Roots

  2. Exponents And Powers

  3. Mensuration

Class 9

  1. Introduction to Number System

  2. Theory of Polynomials

  3. Quadrilateral and finding Volume and Surface Areas

Class 10

  1. Introduction to Circles and Quadratics

  2. Constructions and Co-ordinate Geometry

  3. Arithmetic Progression, Probability And Statistics

Class 11

  1. Sets, Relations and Functions

  2. Trigonometric Functions and Linear Inequalities

  3. Permutation, Combination and Conic Sections

  4. Limits and Derivatives

Class 12

  1. Matrices and Determinants

  2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions

  3. Application of Integrals

  4. Vector algebra and Linear Programming

  5. Continuity And Differentiability

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What Do We Understand by Basic Mathematics?

Answer: The basic concepts of mathematics start with arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Based on these operations, we do infinite calculations. These are the fundamentals that every student learns in their primary school. Here is a quick brief of these operations.

  • Addition: Sum total of numbers (e.g. 3 + 5 = 8)

  • Subtraction: Difference between two numbers or more (e.g. 7 – 5 = 2)

  • Multiplication: it is a product of two or more numbers (e.g. 4 x 7 = 28)

  • Division: Divide a number into equal parts (e.g. 20 ÷ 2 = 10, 20 is divided in 2 equal parts of 10)

Q2. Why is Learning Mathematics Important for Students?

Answer: Mathematics is one of the crucial subjects that help students in building and enhancing their logical thinking and problem solving skills. Mathematics is a subject of numbers, data, shapes, measurements and also logical activities. It has a wide scope in every aspect of our life, such as medicine, finance, natural science, engineering, and economics, etc.

The concepts and formulas that we learn in Mathematics books have huge applications in day to day life. To find the solutions for different math problems we require learning the theories and formulas. Thus, it is significant to learn maths to understand its various applications and significance.

Q3. Which Part of Maths Does Trigonometry Belong to?

Answer: Geometry is one of the crucial branches of mathematics which includes trigonometry, where we deal with sides and angles of a right triangle. It has extensive applications in the fields of architecture and construction.