A percentage is more like a fraction. A percentage is denoted by the sign %. Suppose out of 100 students 12 students were absent, then we say 12% of the students were absent. In other words, anything out of hundred becomes a percentage that means a fraction with denominator 100 can be called as a percentage. In this chapter we will learn how to find the percentage of marks. For example,

\[\frac{{70}}{{100}}\] = can be called as 70 percent. = 70%

\[\frac{{20}}{{100}}\] = can be called as 20 percent. = 20%

\[\frac{{53}}{{100}}\] = can be called as 53 percent. = 53%

\[\frac{{97}}{{100}}\] = can be called as 97 percent. = 97%

It is easier to find the percentage if it is out of a hundred but how to calculate the percentage if it is not out of 100? Suppose there are 60 students in a class and 3 of them were absent. So how to calculate the percentage of students absent?

Percentage = \[\frac{{Number\,of\,subject\,of\,which\,percentage\,is\,to\,be\,found\,(Part)}}{{Total\,Number(Base)}} \times 100\% \]

Here, we need to find the number of students absent. Part = 3, Base = 60.

= 50 %

Therefore, 5% of the students were absent.

Percentage being a convenient way of writing a fraction becomes an integral tool for comparing quantities. Let’s take an example to explain why percentage is prefered more than a fraction. Suppose Yusra comes and tells her parents that she is better in maths because she scored 80 marks and Tasnim scored 70 marks in maths in their respective classes. Would you believe it?

No, because we only know the part and are not aware of the base (total) marks. So let’s check the reality. Yusra scored 80 marks out of 120 marks whereas Tasnim scored 70 marks out of 100 marks. The fraction of Yusra’s marks and Tasnim’s marks are 80120 and 70100 respectively but still we are not sure who scored better. So now let’s calculate the percentage,

Yusra’s percentage in maths \[ = \frac{{Part}}{{Base}} \times 100 = \frac{{80}}{{120}} = 66.6\% \]

Tasnim’s percentage in maths \[ = \frac{{Part}}{{Base}} \times 100 = \frac{{70}}{{100}} = 70\% \]

From the above example, we clearly noticed that choosing a bigger fraction from \[\frac{{80}}{{120}}\] and \[\frac{{70}}{{100}}\] is a little tricky but choosing a bigger percentage from 66.6% and 70% is easier. So now we can say that Tasnim’s score is better than Yusra’s score because 70% is more than 66.6%. Therefore, it is now clear that the percentage is more helpful than fractions when it comes to comparing quantities.

How to find out the percentage of marks of a class having 30 students out of which 25 students passed in Maths and 5 students failed. The students who failed in Maths got 15, 30, 22, 7 and 35 out of 80 respectively. Calculate the percentage of students who failed in Maths. And also show how to find the percentage of marks of students who failed in Maths.

Solution: a) Let the students who failed in Maths be A, B, C, D and E. Shown below is the method of how to calculate percentage from marks:

Percentage of marks of Student A \[ = \frac{{15}}{{80}} \times 100 = \frac{{75}}{4} = 18.75\% \].

Percentage of marks of Student B \[ = \frac{{30}}{{80}} \times 100 = \frac{{300}}{8} = 37.5\% \]

Percentage of marks of Student C \[ = \frac{{22}}{{80}} \times 100 = \frac{{110}}{4} = 27.5\% \]

Percentage of marks of Student D \[ = \frac{7}{{80}} \times 100 = \frac{{70}}{8} = 8.75\% \]

Percentage of marks of Student E \[ = \frac{{35}}{{80}} \times 100 = \frac{{175}}{4} = 43.75\% \]

Therefore, the students who got 18.75%, 37.5%, 27.5%,8.75% and 43.75% failed in maths.

b) If 5 out of 30 students failed in Maths then the percentage of students who failed in maths are: \[\frac{5}{{30}} \times 100 = \frac{{50}}{3} = 16.66\% \]

Therefore, 16.66% of the total students failed in Maths.

Conclusion: To convert any form of number into percentage we need to convert it into a fraction and then multiply by 100. Similarly, to convert a percentage to any form of a number we need to first divide the percentage by 100 and then convert the resultant fraction to the form of a number we want.

1) Convert the following into Percentage:

a) 15 b) 0.6 c) 2:8 d) 9

Solution:

\[\frac{1}{5}\] x100 = 20%

0.6 = \[\frac{6}{{10}}\] x100 = 60%

2: 8 = \[\frac{2}{8}\] x100 = \[\frac{{100}}{4}\] = 25%

9 = \[\frac{9}{1}\] x100 = 900%

2) Convert 20% into:

a) Fraction b) decimal c) Ratio

Solution:

20 % = 20/100 = 1/5

20 % = 20/100 = 1/5 = 0.2

20 % = 20/100 = 1/5 = 1 : 5

3) What is 10% of 30?

Solution:

According to the formula, Percentage = \[ = \frac{{(Part)}}{{(Base)}}\, \times \,100\]

Here, Percentage = 10,

Base = 30

Part = ?

Thus, 10% of 30 is 3.

4) What percentage of 120 is 40?

Solution:

According to the formula, Percentage= \[ = \frac{{(Part)}}{{(Base)}}\, \times \,100\]

Let the percentage be x

\[x = \frac{{40}}{{120}} \times 100 = 33.33\% \]

Thus, 33.33% of 120 is 40.

Any increase or decrease in number or quantity can be defined in percentage. For example, the price of the car has decreased by 10%, the price of the plot has increased by 30% in the last few years, etc. The percentage increase or decrease is always calculated on the bases of initial value and not final value. Suppose there is a discount of 10% on a t-shirt worth Rs 1000. Discount, that is the amount reduced is 10% on Rs 1000. 10% of Rs 1000 is Rs 100. So if the discount is of Rs 100 then the final value will be Rs 1000 - Rs 100 = Rs 900.

Initial Value > Final Value.

Final Value = Initial Value - Decreased Value.

Initial Value = Final Value + Decreased Value.

Decreased Value = Initial Value - Final Value

Where,

Decreased Value = x% of Initial value

= \[\frac{x}{{100}}\] x Initial Value

Initial Value < Final Value.

Final Value = Initial Value + Increased Value.

Initial Value = Final Value - Increased Value.

Increased Value = Final Value - Initial Value.

Where,

Increased Value = x% of Initial value

= \[\frac{x}{{100}}\] x Initial Value

Example:

Last year the number of students in a school was 1000. This year the number of students in the school is 1500.

Initial number of students = 1000

Final number of students = 1500

Final number = Initial number + Increased number

or

Number of students increased = Final number - Initial number

= 1500 - 1000

= 500

Let the increased percentage be x.

Therefore, the increased percentage is 50%. That means 50% of the students increased in school since last year.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Answer:

A percentage is a number represented out of 100 whereas a percentile is a percentage of a specific value below which a specific number is found. Percentile is variable and not out of hundred the value of percentage of value is fixed. For example, 10% of 1000 is always 100 but if we say that 75th percentile is 90 then this means that if you scored above 90 then you are better than 75 people.

Q2) Is percentage the same as a fraction?

Answer:

A percentage is not the same as a fraction but fraction when multiplied with 100 give the percentage. Example: If you score 40 out of 50 then it can be represented as 40/50 and if it is multiplied with 100 then we get the percentage, i.e, 40/50 X 100 = 80%. Thus, 40/50 is equal to 80%.