Graphical Representation of Data

The graphical representation is a method of numerical data analysis. It shows a diagram of the relationship between knowledge, ideas, information, and concepts. It is easy to understand and one of the key learning strategies. The knowledge in a particular domain depends always on the type of information.


The visual representation forms are distinct. Some of the following are:

1. Line Graphs:

Linear graphs display the continuous data and are useful for the prediction of future events over time.

2. Bar Graphs:

Bar Graph is used for displaying the classification of details and compares data to the amounts by using solid bars.

3. Histograms:

This chart, which uses bars to represent the frequency of numerical data, which are grouped in intervals, has the same width. Since all intervals are similar and continuous.

4. Line Plot:

It shows the data frequency on a given line. 

5. Frequency Table: 

The table shows the number of data pieces within the interval given.

6. Circle Graph

Circle graph is a diagram which shows the relationships of the entire component. The circle shall be 100% and the categories occupied shall be represented by a certain percentage, such as 15%, 56%, etc.

7. Stem and Leaf Plot:

Data from the lowest value to the highest value are arranged in the stem and leaf plot. The pictures of the lowest places in the sheets and the next places are the numbers.

8. Box and Whisker Plot:

The diagram sums up the data in four sections. The graph is shown. Box and whisker indicate the range of information (distribution) and the medium data range.


General Rules for Graphical Representation of Data

There are some rules to display the data and information effectively in the graphical picture. They are as stated below:

  1. Suitable Title: 

Ensure that the chart showing the topic of the presentation is given the appropriate title.

  1. Measurement Unit: 

Make sure to mention the unit of measurement in the graph.

  1. Proper Scale: 

Choose a proper scale to represent the data in an accurate manner.

  1. Index: 

Index the corresponding colours, shades, rows, graphs format to better understand.

  1. Data Sources: 

Include the information source at the bottom of the graph wherever necessary.

  1. Keep it Simple: 

Construct a graph in an easy way that everyone can understand.

  1. Neat: 

Choose the correct size, lettering, colours, etc. so that the chart is a visual aid to the screen.


Graphical Representation in Maths:

For mathematics, a diagram is a graph with statistical data represented by curves or lines across the coordinate point on its surface. It helps to research the relation between two variables whereby the change of the variable amount in respect of another variable can be calculated within a certain time interval. The distribution of the sequence and the frequency distribution can be analysed for a particular problem. 


The data can be visually represented with two types of graphs. As listed below, they are as follows:

Time Series Graphs:

Example: Line Graph.

Frequency Distribution Graphs:

Example: Frequency Polygon Graph.


Principles of Graphical Representation:

All forms of graphical data representation are governed by algebraic principles. For diagrams, the co-ordinate axis are represented with two rows. The X-axis is a horizontal axis, while the Y-axis is indicated on the vertical axis. The intersecting point of two lines is called ‘O’. Take x-axis into account that the distance between origin and right is good and the distance between the source and left is good. The distance above the origin is also positive for the y-axis, and the distance below the origin is negative.

Generally, frequency distribution is represented in the following methods, namely:

  1. Histogram.

  2. Smoothed frequency graph.

  3. Pie diagram.

  4. Cumulative or ogive frequency graph.

  5. Frequency Polygon.

  6. Merits of Using Graphs.


Advantages of Graphical Representation of Data:

The visual depiction of documents has different advantages that are as follows: 

  • This report is suitable for busy people because it emphasizes the subject of the report comfortably. It helps to avoid waste of time.

  • Data can be contrasted in terms of graphic representation. This kind of comparative analysis helps to understand and focus easily.

  • It takes a lot of time to correctly present concise data.

  • Corporate managers study the diagrams and very easily decide about the feasibility of the document.

  • A logical sequence is developed to clarify the public definition when tables, models, and graphs are used for data.

  • Poorly trained or illiterate people can easily understand graphics because a line-by-line diagram does not require a concise text.

  • Tables need less effort and less time for modelling, graphs, and pictures. This approach is always easy to understand the details.

  • Errors are reliable, insightful or descriptive. Since graphic figures, tablets and diagrams show less error and error usually.

  • The viewer gets a simple, complete idea from this depiction. There can be no place to judge 100 words.


Disadvantages of Graphical Representation of Data:

  1. Document graphic representation is not unrestricted. The graphical representation problems of data or reports are as follows: 

  2. The reports of graphical representation are costly because of the images, and colours. Combining content with human effort is costly in terms of visual layout.

  3. It takes less time to represent a normal file, but the representation of the graph takes time since graphs and figures rely on more time.

  4. Inconsistencies are all likely to occur due to the sophistication of the graphical representations. It leads to community awareness problems.

  5. Graphs show the complete view of data that can keep anything from being kept secret.


Sample Example for Frequency polygon:

Here are the steps to be followed in order to find the frequency distribution of a polygon and it is graphically represented.

  1. Get the frequency distribution and find the intervals of each group.

  2. Mark the middle points along with the X-axis and y-axis frequencies.

  3. At each mid-point, draw the points that are the same as the frequency.

  4. Using lines in order to incorporate these details.

  5. To complete the polygon, attach the point to the bottom or high-class points in the X-axis immediately at each end.