## Cube

Let’s just pause for a moment to observe our room. Do you see any objects of rectangular shape? This could be a household item, a crate, a block, or anything of the like. This shape is known as a Cuboid, and it is a very normal shape to find in our general surroundings. This is shown in the accompanying image of a building, a book, and a frozen yogurt sandwich. These articles are Cuboid shapes.

A Cuboid is a three-dimensional shape with a length, width, and tallness. The Cuboid shape has six sides called countenances. Each face of a Cuboid is rectangular shaped, and the majority of a Cuboid's corners (called vertices) are 90-degree edges. At last, a Cuboid has the state of a rectangular box.

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This may abandon you pondering, shouldn't something be said about a block, or a crate with six square faces all a similar size? To address this, we have to understand that a square is an extraordinary sort of square shape. In this way, a 3D square still has faces that are square shapes, and we see that a 3D square is as yet a Cuboid. Anything that is a crate molded article is a Cuboid.

### How to recognize a Cuboid?

In a Cuboid, each face is a square shape and the corners, or the vertices are 90-degree edges. Additionally, the contrary countenances are dependably equal. The least complex example is a book. It has 6 surfaces of which each contrary pair is of similar measurements.

### Cuboid Formulas:

Space Diagonal: Space=\[\sqrt{{L^{2}}+H^{2}+W^{2}}\]

Lengths of Face Inclining:

DLH=\[\sqrt{{L^{2}}+H^{2}}\]

DLH=\[\sqrt{{L^{2}}+W^{2}}\]

DLW=\[\sqrt{{H^{2}}+W^{2}}\]

Perimeter=4×(L+W+H)

The perimeter gives us the complete edge to edge separation of the shape or item.

Lateral Surface Area = 2×(L×H+W×H)

The Lateral surface area is the area of the appearances along the height.

Total Surface Area=2(W×H+L×H+W×H)

The surface area is the entirety of all areas of the appearances.

Volume=L×W×H

The volume is a proportion of the limit of the article, which in a roundabout way may help in figuring the mass of the issue contained in the Cuboid, say water.

### The Volume of Cuboid

The volume of a three-dimensional item is how much space is inside the article. Some of you might be comfortable with the volume of a rectangular box. Provided that this is true, at that point you are additionally comfortable with the volume of Cuboid. To discover the volume of a Cuboid, we duplicate the Cuboid's length times its width times its stature. At the end of the day, the volume V of a Cuboid is found by the recipe V = l * w * h, where l = length, w = width, and h = height.

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This is an exceptionally valuable recipe. For example, think about two of our underlying Cuboid precedents, the book, and the frozen yogurt sandwich. The volume of the book reveals to us how much space the pages of the book take up. The volume of the frozen yogurt sandwich reveals to us how much dessert is in the sandwich - and let's be honest, the frozen yogurt is the best part!

The book indicated has a length of 6 inches, a width of 4 inches, and tallness of 1 inch. Thus, we discover the volume of the book by stopping l = 6, w = 4, and h = 1 into our volume recipe to get V = 6 x 4 x 1 = 24 cubic inches. This discloses to us that the pages of the book take up 24 cubic inches.

Also, the frozen yogurt sandwich has a length of 12 centimeters, a width of 5 centimeters, and a stature of 2.4 centimeters. Connecting these qualities to our volume recipe gives V = 12 x 5 x 2.4 = 144 cubic centimeters. This discloses to us that there are 144 cubic centimeters of frozen yogurt in our dessert sandwich - yum!

### The Surface Area of a Cuboid

The total surface area of a Cuboid is equal to the total of the areas of its six rectangular appearances and the Lateral surface area is equal to the entirety of the areas of the four horizontal surfaces of Cuboid.

The total surface area of all sides with the exception of the best and base face of strong is characterized as a sidelong surface area of a strong.

Consider a Cuboid having length is 'l' cm, expansiveness is 'b' cm and stature 'h' cm.

Area of the face EFGH = Area of the face ABCD = (l × b) cm2

Area of the face BFGC = Area of the face AEHD = (b × h) cm2

Area of the face DHGC = Area of the face ABFE = (l × h) cm2

### The Total Surface Area of a Cuboid:

The total surface area of a Cuboid=Sum of the areas of all its 6 rectangular countenances

=2(l×b)+2(b×h)+2(l×h)cm^{2}

There is a trick to remember this formula; just remember this line: 2 x (lal bahadur, bahadur hain, laal hai).

The Lateral Surface Area of a Cuboid: The total surface area of each side except top and the bottom face of solid is defined as the lateral surface area of a solid. Consider a Cuboid of length, breadth, and height to be l, b, and h respectively.

Lateral surface area of the Cuboid = Area of face EACH + Area of face BCGF + Area of face EABF + Area of face DCGH=2(b×h)+2(h×l)=2h(l+b)

Lateral surface area of the Cuboid = Area of face EACH + Area of face BCGF + Area of face EABF + Area of face DCGH=2(b×h)+2(h×l)=2h(l+b)

### Examples Surface Area of a Cuboid

Question 1: What is the Lateral and Total surface area of a 2cm × 3cm × 4cm Cuboid?

Solution:

The complete surface zone is=2(2×3+3×4+2×4)cm^{2}

=52cm^{2}

The sidelong surface zone is=2(3×4+2×4)cm^{2}

=40cm^{2}

Question 2: There is a Cuboid whose base is a square and tallness is 10 cm. On the off chance that the area of one side face is 120 cm2, what is the absolute surface zone of the Cuboid?

Solution: Since the area of one side face is 120 cm2, the side length of the square base is (120/10) cm = 12 cm. Therefore, the Cuboid is a 12 cm × 12 cm × 10 cm Cuboid.

Consequently, the all-out surface zone of the Cuboid is = 2(12 × 12 + 12 × 10 + 12 × 10) cm2.

=768cm2

Question 3: A Cuboid's base has a zone of 20 cm2, and an edge of 20 cm. On the off chance that the Cuboid's tallness is 6 cm, what is the absolute surface zone?

Solution: The total of the areas of the side faces (Lateral Surface Area) is (edge of the base) × (tallness), and the surface area of the Cuboid is (Total of areas of the side appearances) + 2 (area of base).

Along these lines, the surface area of the Cuboid is = (20cm × 6cm) + (2 x 20 cm2)

=160cm2

### Cube

The solid shape is a three-dimensional structure which is framed when six indistinguishable squares bind to each other in an encased structure.

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### The Volume of a Cube

The volume of a cube can be spoken to by length (l) × expansiveness (b) × stature (h), and since l = b = h in the block, its sides can be spoken to as l = b = h = a. Therefore, the volume of the cube = a3, where an is the estimation of each side of the 3D shape. Subsequently, the volume of the cube of 1 cm will be equivalent to 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm = 1 cm3.

Be that as it may, on the off chance that we require building a bigger 3D square from a little block (a = 1 cm), we have to join a number of those smaller cubes. Instances of things that have the shape of 3D squares are – Dice, Rubik's Cube, and so on. A 3D square, for the most part, has 6 faces, 12 edges, and 8 vertices. The example of the 3D square is additionally a square parallelepiped or the state of symmetrical Cuboid.

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As far as numbers, Cube numbers or basically, Cubes, are those unique numbers that are obtained by increasing any given number without anyone else's input, multiple times.

Shapes of positive numbers are dependably positive. For precedent: Cube of +4 is = (+4) × (+4) × (+4) = +64.

3D shapes of negative numbers are dependably negative. For model: Cube of - 4 is = (- 4) × (- 4) × (- 4) = - 64.

Numerical esteem subsequent to cubing any given number is known as a Perfect Cube. 3D shapes of some characteristic numbers are given according to following:

13 = 1

23 =8

33=27

43=64

53=125

63=216

73=343

83=512

93=729

103=1000

While cubing, we see that ideal 3D squares are numbers like 1, 8, 27, and so on, however numbers falling between these are not flawless solid shapes.

### Properties of Perfect Cubes

The 3D squares of numbers with checking digits, for example, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 as the unit's digits end with 0, 1, 8, 7, 4, 5, 6, 3, 2, and 9 separately. This may be mind-boggling and difficult to recollect yet just knowing the 3D squares of numbers referenced above, assurance of the unit's digit of any substantial number's solid shape turns out to be very simple and this is additionally extremely supportive in numerous figuring.

3D squares of even numbers are always even.

3D squares of odd numbers are always odd.

### Examples Related to Cubes

1. An ideal 3D square is "a total of successive odd numbers". The continuous odd numbers, whose whole makes up an ideal solid shape, themselves show up in the request of odd quantities of the number line. For instance:

13=1

23=8=5+3

33=27=11+9+7

43=64=19+17+15+13

53=125=33+31+31+21+9

Etc.

2. Another fascinating example discovered, is that the tally of back to back odd numbers, whose total makes up an ideal solid shape, is equivalent to the number whose 3D square is under thought. For instance:

13=1

(one odd number)

23=8=5+3

(two odd numbers)

33=27=11+9+7

(three odd numbers)

43=64=19+17+15+13

(four odd numbers)

53=125=33+31+31+21+9

(five odd numbers)

Etc.

3. Let the numbers be - 15625, 8000 and 243. Verify whether the given numbers are perfect cubes or not.

Solution: Prime factorization of 15625 = 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 (the result of multiple times 5). Presently, we make conceivable gatherings of 3 like digits; three 5's make a gathering and three 5's make another gathering.

15625=(5×5×5)×(5×5×5)=(5×5)3 =253

Subsequently, 15625 is a Perfect Cube.

4. Prime factorization of 8000 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 5 × 5 × 5 (result of multiple times 2 and multiple times 5). Presently, we make conceivable gatherings of 3 like digits; three 2's make a gathering, three 2's make another gathering and three 5's make another gathering.

8000=(2×2×2)×(2×2×2)×(5×5×5)=23 ×23× 53 =2×2×53 =203

Accordingly, 8000 is likewise a Perfect Cube.

5. Prime factorization of 243 = 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 (the result of multiple times 3). Presently, we make conceivable gatherings of 3 like digits; three 3's make a gathering, two 3's make another gathering.

243=(3×3×3)×(3×3)=33 × 32

Therefore, 243 is definitely not a perfect Cube as it can't be composed as a block of a solitary number.

### Important Definitions

After learning 2 dimensional geometry in the younger class students are introduced with the geometry of 3 dimensional objects in the higher class. The concepts that are taught in junior classes such as the line, length, square, rectangle and area are used for measuring various specifications of any three dimensional object. So it is better to get a recap of the concepts and is described as followed:

Line : It is the shortest distance between any two points in space or on a plane as we have learned in the earlier classes.

Length : The measurement and expression of the distance between two points or is called the length of the line.

Square : It is a geometrical figure having 4 equal sides.

Rectangle : It is another geometrical figure with unequal adjacent sides but equal opposite sides. The longer sides are known as the length of the rectangle. The smaller side is known as the breadth of the rectangle.

Area : The spread of any two dimensional objects or the space covered on a plane is known as the area. For a square the area is obtained by the square of the side length. And for a rectangle the area is obtained by the multiplication of the length and breadth of the rectangle.

Perimeter : it is generally obtained by the sum of the length of all the sides in a square or rectangle or any other geometrical figure in two dimensions.

Now we will learn about the three dimensional objects having length, breadth and height. The most simple objects of three dimensions are a sphere, a cube and a cuboid.

Cube : this is an object with equal sides or equal length, breadth and height. It has 6 faces of equal area.

Cuboid : It can be any type with 12 edges and 6 faces. The length of the edges can be similar or not. Thus the faces can be of any area.

Volume : It is another characteristic of only three dimensional objects that describes the space occupied by that object.

Students will get to learn and use the formulas for finding out all these features of a cuboid and cuboids. They also need to practice questions based on these formulas to understand the concepts more clearly.

## FAQs on Cuboid and Cube

**1. How can we recognise if any object is Cuboid or not ?**

Any geometrical three dimensional object having distinguished 12 edges which are line in shape and are measurable. The edges form 6 faces which are rectangular in shape and the area can be calculated of the faces by simple multiplication of the length and breadth by that face. You can see it for yourself in the Mathematics Lab present in your School or can watch any video available online. Book is an in-hand example of a cuboid having length, breadth and width.

**2. What is the proper way to differentiate between a Cube and Cuboid ?**

Cube is essentially a Cuboid but having all the edges of equal length. So it would not be wrong to say that all cubes are cuboid but all cuboids can't be termed as cubes. Students can compare cube and cuboids by the samples present in Mathematical lab or in daily life. Dice is a perfect example of a Cube having equal length, breadth and height. The 6 faces formed by the sides are always in the shape of a square.

**3. What is the total Surface Area or T.S.A. of a Cuboid and how to find it?**

Any cube or Cuboid has 12 edges and 6 faces. The area of each face is equal in cubes while it differs in cuboids. So the total surface area of the cube and cuboids is the sum of surface areas of all the faces. The formulas derived for the total surface area are as follows: Total Surface area of Cube equals 6 X side square. Total Surface Area of Cuboid equals 2 X ( length X breadth + length X height + breadth X height ).

**4. What is the difference between Lateral Surface Area and Total Surface Area ?**

For finding the total surface area in a cube or Cuboid all the faces are added up. But for finding the lateral surface area of the cuboids we need to remove the area at the base and top faces. The formula for finding out the lateral surface area of Cube and Cuboid is as follows :

Cube : 4 X ( side X side ) or 4 X side^{2} to the power of two.

Cuboid : 2 X ( length X height + breadth X height ). Lateral Surface area is essentially the sum of all the vertical faces of a solid cube or Cuboid.

**5. Where can I find all the books and materials for the detailed study on Cube and Cuboids ?**

The chapter for Cube and Cuboid is covered under the subject of Mathematics of various Classes in CBSE, ICSE or any other state Board in India. The books published for the courses are available in the market and are also provided by the schools the students study in. Students can also obtain the PDF files of these books by downloading it from the Vedantu website. After registration students can also gain the benefit of accessing various other study materials and question sets for the better preparation of the topic.