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# Out of the following hybrid orbitals, the one which forms the bond at angle $120^\circ$ isA) ${d^2}s{p^3}$ B) $s{p^3}$ C) $s{p^2}$ D) $sp$

Last updated date: 09th Apr 2024
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Hint: The hybridization of a molecule decides its bond angle. Here, we will understand the bond angles shown by $s{p^3}$, $s{p^2}$ , $sp$ and ${d^2}s{p^3}$hybridized molecule. The bond angle also determines molecular shape.

Complete step by step solution:Let’s first understand what hybridization is. This is the process of intermixing of orbitals to give a new group of orbitals possessing different shapes and energies.
Now, we will understand the bond angles of all the hybridized molecules.
The ${d^2}s{p^3}$hybridization means six electron groups surround the central atom. The surrounding groups are atoms bonded to the central atom and the count of lone pairs. So, its bond angle is $90^\circ$. For example, ${\rm{S}}{{\rm{F}}_{\rm{6}}}$ is ${d^2}s{p^3}$hybridized.
The $s{p^3}$ hybridized molecule has four electron groups surrounding the central atom. So, the bond angle in this hybridized molecule is $109^\circ 28'$ . For example, ${\rm{C}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{4}}}$ is $s{p^3}$ hybridized.
The $s{p^2}$ hybridized molecule has three electron groups surrounding the central atom. So, the bond angle in this hybridized molecule is $120^\circ$ . For example, ${\rm{B}}{{\rm{F}}_{\rm{4}}}$ is $s{p^3}$ hybridized.
An $sp$ hybridize molecule has two electron groups surrounding the central atom. So, the bond angle in an sp hybridized molecule is $180^\circ$ . The carbon dioxide molecule is an $sp$ hybridized molecule.

Therefore, option C is right.

Note: The hybridization also tells the geometry and shape of a molecule. If no lone pair is present, the $s{p^3}$ hybridization denotes a tetrahedral molecule, the $s{p^2}$ hybridization is for a trigonal planar and an $sp$ hybridization denotes a linear molecule and the ${d^2}s{p^3}$hybridization is for an octahedral molecule. But, the presence of lone pairs alters the shapes of molecules.