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Difference Between Resistance and Resistivity for JEE Main 2024

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Last updated date: 17th Apr 2024
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What is Resistance and Resistivity: Introduction

To explain resistance and resistivity: Understanding the behaviour of materials and electrical circuits requires an understanding of resistance and resistivity, which are essential ideas in the fields of electrical engineering and physics. Although these words are frequently used interchangeably, they have different connotations and implications.


Category:

JEE Main Difference Between

Content-Type:

Text, Images, Videos and PDF

Exam:

JEE Main

Topic Name:

Differences between Resistance and Resistivity

Academic Session:

2024

Medium:

English Medium

Subject:

Mathematics

Available Material:

Chapter-wise Difference Between Topics


What is Resistance and Resistivity? Let’s delve into this:

The opposition that an electric current encounters as it passes through a substance is referred to as resistance. It can be pictured as the resistance or friction the current encounters as it travels through a conductor. The conductor's length, cross-sectional area, and material's properties are just a few of the variables that affect resistance. It is measured in ohms and represented by the letter "R".


The ability of a substance to resist the flow of electric current is determined by its resistivity, which is an intrinsic attribute of a material. The symbol (rho) designates this characteristic attribute, which assists to define a material's conductivity. No matter the shape or size of a substance, resistivity, which is measured in ohm-meters, remains constant for that material.


Engineers and scientists who work with electrical systems and materials must understand the distinction between resistance and resistivity. One can choose materials, build circuits, and analyse the behaviour of electrical systems with greater knowledge if they are aware of these ideas.


Finding Resistance and Resistivity Difference

Let’s define Resistance and Resistivity and find out how they are different.


Defining Resistance

Resistance is a fundamental term in electrical engineering and physics that refers to the resistance encountered by an electric current flowing through a material. It is a measure of how difficult it is for current to flow through a given conductor. Resistance can be thought of as the friction or obstruction experienced by the flow of electrical charges.Resistance is affected by several factors, including the length of the conductor, its cross-section, and the nature of the material itself. 


More about Resistance:

A longer conductor and smaller cross-section generally results in higher resistance because the current encounters more obstacles and a narrower path has to flow.In addition, some materials have higher intrinsic strengths due to their atomic or molecular structure.


Resistance is marked with the symbol “R” and is measured in ohms. It plays a key role in determining the behavior of electrical circuits and is a key parameter in Ohm's law, which states that the current through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage applied to it, but not directly proportional to the conductor's resistance.


Understanding resistance is critical to a variety of practical applications such as circuit design, power dissipation calculations, and power analysis of electrical equipment. By manipulating resistance, engineers can control the flow of current and tailor the behavior of electrical systems to meet specific needs.


Defining Resistivity

Resistivity is an intrinsic property of a material that determines its inherent ability to resist the flow of electric current. It is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the passage of electrical charges. Unlike resistance, which depends on factors such as length, cross-sectional area, and material nature, resistivity remains constant for a specific material, regardless of its shape or size.


More about Resistivity:

Resistivity is denoted by the symbol (rho) and is measured in ohm-meters. It serves as a characteristic property that defines a material's conductivity. Materials with high resistivity impede the flow of current more effectively, while materials with low resistivity allow for easier current flow.


Factors Influencing Resistivity: 

The resistivity of a material is influenced by various factors, including its atomic or molecular structure, the presence of impurities or defects, temperature, and other physical properties. Materials with a higher density of free charge carriers, such as metals, generally exhibit lower resistivity and are better conductors of electricity. Conversely, insulating materials, like rubber or ceramics, have higher resistivity and hinder the flow of electric current.


Importance of Resistivity:

Resistivity is an essential parameter in electrical and electronic engineering. It helps determine the efficiency and performance of conductive materials in various applications. By understanding the resistivity of different materials, engineers can select appropriate materials for specific purposes, design circuits with desired characteristics, and optimize the performance of electrical systems.


Differences between Resistance and Resistivity

Sl.No

Property

Resistance

Resistivity

1.

Definition

The ratio of the voltage across a conductor to the current flowing through it

The resistance of a conductor of unit length and unit cross-sectional area

2.

SI unit

ohm

ohm-meter

3.

Factors that affect it

Length, cross-sectional area, resistivity of the material

Type of material, temperature of the material

4.

Dependence on Temperature

Increases with increasing temperature

Increases with increasing temperature

5.

Dependence on Material

Varies from material to material

Varies from material to material


The above table defines the characteristics of resistance and resistivity. It's worth noting that while there are many differences between resistance and resistivity, there are also many similarities, such as the dependence on material.


Summary

Two important concepts in electrical engineering are Resistance and Resistivity. Resistance is a measure of how much an object resists the flow of electric current, while resistivity is a measure of how much a material resists the flow of electric current. The resistance of a conductor can be calculated by dividing the voltage across the conductor by the current flowing through it. The resistivity of a material can be calculated by dividing the resistance of a conductor by its length and cross-sectional area.


Additional Information:

  • The resistance of a conductor increases with increasing length and decreasing cross-sectional area.

  • The resistivity of a material is a constant for a given material at a given temperature.

  • The resistivity of a material increases with increasing temperature.

  • The resistance of a conductor can be reduced by using a material with a lower resistivity or by making the conductor shorter or thicker.

  • The resistivity of a material can be reduced by alloying it with other materials or by adding impurities to it.

FAQs on Difference Between Resistance and Resistivity for JEE Main 2024

1. What is the difference between resistance and resistivity?

Resistance is a measure of how much an object resists the flow of electric current, while resistivity is a measure of how much a material resists the flow of electric current. Resistance is measured in ohms, while resistivity is measured in ohm-meters.

2. What are the factors that affect resistance?

The factors that affect resistance are the length of the conductor, the cross-sectional area of the conductor, and the resistivity of the material. The resistance of a conductor increases with increasing length and decreasing cross-sectional area. The resistance of a conductor also increases with increasing temperature.

3. What are the factors that affect resistivity?

The factors that affect resistivity are the type of material and the temperature of the material. The resistivity of a material varies from material to material. The resistivity of a material also increases with increasing temperature.

4. How can resistance be reduced?

Resistance can be reduced by using a material with a lower resistivity or by making the conductor shorter or thicker. Resistance can also be reduced by alloying a material with other materials or by adding impurities to it.

5. What are the applications of resistance and resistivity?

Resistance and resistivity are used in a variety of applications, including electrical engineering, electronics, and materials science. Resistance is used to measure the amount of current flowing through a circuit, while resistivity is used to determine the electrical properties of materials.

6. What is the difference between resistance and resistivity?

Resistance is a property of an object or component that opposes the flow of electric current through it, while resistivity is a property of a material that quantifies how strongly it resists the flow of electric current.