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JEE Advanced Chemistry Important Chapters

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Last updated date: 28th May 2024
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The Key Topics and Chapterwise Weightage for Scoring High in JEE Advanced Chemistry

JEE Advanced Chemistry is a challenging subject that requires thorough preparation and a clear understanding of the syllabus. Within the vast chemistry syllabus, certain chapters are considered particularly important for scoring high marks in the examination.


These JEE Advanced Chemistry important chapters play a pivotal role in determining a candidate's overall performance and rank. Mastering these chapters not only ensures a strong foundation in chemistry but also enhances problem-solving skills and analytical abilities. In this article, we will explore the key JEE Advanced Chemistry important chapters and understand why prioritizing them is vital for excelling in this prestigious examination.

JEE Advanced Important Chapters in Chemistry

For JEE Advanced 2024, the Chemistry syllabus is vast, covering various topics in Organic, Inorganic, and Physical Chemistry. While all chapters are important, some carry more weightage and are considered crucial for scoring well in the exam. Here are the JEE Advanced important chapters in Chemistry:


PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 

STATES OF MATTER

Classification of matter into solid, liquid, and gaseous states.


Gaseous State: Measurable properties of gases: Gas laws - Boyle's law, Charle’s law. Graham's law of diffusion. Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor, and van der Waals equation.


Liquid State: Properties of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension, and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).


Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg's Law and its applications: Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, an imperfection in solids; Electrical and magnetic properties. 

ATOMIC STRUCTURE 

Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Bohr model of a hydrogen atom - its postulates, derivation of the relations for the energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr's model; Dual nature of matter, de Broglie's relationship. Heisenberg uncertainty principle.


Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanics, the quantum mechanical model of the atom, its important features.


Concept of atomic orbitals as one-electron wave functions: Variation of  and 2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum, and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p, and d - orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number: Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals. 

CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE  

Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, the concept of ionic and covalent bonds.


Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.


Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity. Fajan’s rule, dipole moment: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR ) theory and shapes of simple molecules.


Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory - its important features, the concept of hybridization involving s, p, and d orbitals; Resonance.

Molecular Orbital Theory - Its important features. LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, the concept of bond order, bond length, and bond energy. Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.

CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS

Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.


The first law of thermodynamics - Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess’s law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization, and solution.


The second law of thermodynamics - Spontaneity of processes; S of the universe and G of the system as criteria for spontaneity. G (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant. 

EQUILIBRIUM  

Meaning of equilibrium, the concept of dynamic equilibrium.


Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid-liquid, liquid - gas and solid-gas equilibria, Henry's law. General characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes.


Equilibrium involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, the significance of G and G in chemical equilibrium, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, the effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.


Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius. Bronsted - Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water. pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, the solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.

REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY 

Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions. 

Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.


Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half - cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement: Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs' energy change: Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells. 

UNIT 9: CHEMICAL KINETICS 

Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure, and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first-order reactions, their characteristics and half-lives, the effect of temperature on the rate of reactions, Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation). 

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES 

Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p. d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states, and chemical reactivity. 

S -BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS) 

Group -1 and 2 Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.


Preparation and properties of some important compounds - sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone. Plaster of Paris and cement: Biological significance of Na, K. Mg, and Ca. 

P- BLOCK ELEMENTS

Group -13 to Group 18 

Elements General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group. Groupwise study of the p - block elements


Group -13 

Preparation, properties, and uses of boron and aluminum; Structure, properties, and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminum chloride, and alums.


Group -14 

The tendency for catenation; Structure, properties, and uses of Allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites, and silicones.


Group -15 

Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure, and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine, and phosphorus halides, (PCl3. PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.


Group -16 

Preparation, properties, structures, and uses of ozone: Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures, and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.


Group-17 

Preparation, properties, and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.


Group-18 

Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon. 

d - and f- BLOCK ELEMENTS

Transition Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first-row transition elements - physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties, and uses of K2Cr2O7, and KMnO4.


Inner Transition Elements: Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, and lanthanoid contraction. Actinoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation states. 

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY 

Environmental pollution: Atmospheric, water, and soil.


Atmospheric pollution: Tropospheric and Stratospheric


Tropospheric pollutants: Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects, and prevention; Greenhouse effect and Global warming: Acid rain.


Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects, and prevention.


Stratospheric pollution: Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of the ozone layer - its mechanism and effects.


Water Pollution: Major pollutants such as. pathogens, organic wastes, and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.

 

Soil pollution: Major pollutants such as; Pesticides (insecticides. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects, and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution. 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 

Tetravalency of carbon: Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p): Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur; Homologous series: Isomerism - structural and stereoisomerism.


Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC): Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations, and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles, and nucleophiles.


Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance, and hyperconjugation. Common types of organic reactions- Substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangement. 

HYDROCARBONS 

Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties, and reactions.


Alkanes: Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane): Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.


Alkenes: Geometrical isomerism: Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoffs and peroxide effect): Ozonolysis and polymerization.


Alkynes: Acidic character: Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, and hydrogen halides: Polymerization.


Aromatic hydrocarbons: Nomenclature, benzene - structure and aromaticity: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration. 

Friedel - Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of the functional group in monosubstituted benzene. 

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HALOGENS

General methods of preparation, properties, and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions. Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform freons, and DDT. 

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN 

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions, and uses.


ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS, AND ETHERS 

Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols: mechanism of dehydration.


Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation. nitration and sulphonation. Reimer - Tiemann reaction.


Ethers: Structure. Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as - Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN. NH3, and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation: reduction (Wolf Kishner and Clemmensen); the acidity of -hydrogen. aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction. Haloform reaction, Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones. 

Carboxylic Acids Acidic strength and factors affecting it.

BIOMOLECULES

General introduction and importance of biomolecules.

 

Carbohydrates: Classification; aldoses and ketoses: monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, and maltose).


Proteins: Elementary Idea of -amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides. Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.


Vitamins: Classification and functions.


Nucleic Acids: Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids. 


JEE Advanced Chemistry Important Chapters: Marks Weightages

The marks weightages for JEE Advanced Chemistry important chapters may vary slightly from year to year. However, based on previous trends, here are the approximate marks weightages for some important chapters:


Topics

No of Questions

Weightage of Marks (%)

The periodic table and Representative Elements

3

12

Transition Elements and Coordination Chemistry

3

12

Atomic Structure

2

8

Nuclear Chemistry And Environment

2

8

Chemical Kinetics

1

4

Solid State And Surface Chemistry

2

8

Thermodynamics And Gaseous State

2

8

Chemical Bonding

2

8

Chemical And Ionic Equilibrium

2

8

Solution and Colligative Properties

1

4

Hydrocarbon

1

4

Aromatic Compounds

1

4

Redox Reaction

1

4

Mole Concept

1

4

Alkyl Halides

1

4

Carboxylic Acid and their Derivatives

1

4

Electrochemistry

1

4

General Organic Chemistry

1

4

Stereochemistry

1

4

Carbohydrates, amino acid and Polymers

1

4


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Vedantu offers several benefits to students when practicing previous year papers for JEE Advanced Chemistry. Vedantu's platform enables students to leverage the benefits of practicing previous year papers for JEE Advanced Chemistry, helping them refine their exam strategy, improve problem-solving skills, and boost their confidence to achieve success in the competitive examination:


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  • Comprehensive Solutions: Vedantu offers detailed and step-by-step solutions for previous year papers, enabling students to understand the correct approach to solving questions and improve their problem-solving skills.

  • Topic-wise Analysis: Students can review their performance chapter-wise, identifying weak areas and focusing on specific topics that require more attention.

  • Exam-Level Preparation: By solving previous year papers, students get exposure to a diverse range of questions, ensuring they are well-prepared for the actual exam's varying difficulty levels.

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Conclusion 

The JEE Advanced Chemistry important chapters play a critical role in a candidate's preparation journey for the competitive examination. These chapters carry substantial weightage and are vital for securing a competitive rank. Mastering the concepts in these important chapters is crucial for building a strong foundation in Chemistry and honing problem-solving skills. A well-rounded preparation, coupled with regular practice of previous year papers, enhances a student's ability to tackle complex questions in the actual exam. By prioritising the important chapters and dedicating focused efforts, students can excel in JEE Advanced Chemistry, paving the way for a successful and rewarding academic journey in the field of Chemistry and beyond.

FAQs on JEE Advanced Chemistry Important Chapters

1: What are JEE Advanced Chemistry important chapters?

JEE Advanced Chemistry important chapters are specific topics that carry significant weightage in the exam and are frequently asked. They are crucial for scoring well and determining a candidate's overall rank.

2: How can I identify the important chapters in JEE Advanced Chemistry?

The important chapters can be identified based on their historical weightage of marks in previous years' papers and the frequency of questions asked from these topics.

3: Are the important chapters for JEE Advanced Chemistry the same every year?

The important chapters may vary slightly from year to year, depending on the JEE Advanced examination pattern and trends.

4: Should I focus solely on the important chapters for Chemistry preparation?

While focusing on important chapters is beneficial, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of all topics in Chemistry to score well in JEE Advanced.

5: Can practicing important chapters guarantee a good rank in JEE Advanced Chemistry?

Scoring well in JEE Advanced Chemistry requires consistent practice, understanding concepts, and thorough preparation across all topics, including important chapters.

6: How can practicing previous year papers from important chapters help in Chemistry preparation?

Practicing previous year papers from important chapters helps students familiarise themselves with the exam pattern, gain exposure to diverse question types, and improve their problem-solving skills.

7: Are solutions available for previous year papers of important chapters?

Yes, solutions for previous year papers of important chapters are available, providing step-by-step explanations and aiding students in understanding the correct approach to solving questions.

8: Can teachers use important chapters as part of their teaching methodology for JEE Advanced Chemistry?

Yes, teachers can use important chapters to prioritize topics and focus on key concepts during their teaching to help students prepare effectively for the exam.

9: How should I plan my study schedule to cover important chapters effectively?

Allocate sufficient time to study and revise the important chapters, while also ensuring that you cover the entire Chemistry syllabus for a comprehensive preparation.

10: Are there any additional resources available for practicing important chapters in JEE Advanced Chemistry?

Yes, in addition to previous year papers, various online platforms and coaching institutes offer practice questions, mock tests, and study materials focused on important chapters in JEE Advanced Chemistry.