Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
Store Icon

ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Revision Notes Chapter 7 - Metallurgy

Last updated date: 20th Jul 2024
Total views: 657.6k
Views today: 13.57k

Revision Notes for ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 7 - Free PDF Download

Free PDF download of Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 7 - Metallurgy Revision Notes & Short Key-notes prepared by our expert Chemistry teachers as per CISCE guidelines. To register Chemistry Tuitions on Vedantu to clear your doubts.

Competitive Exams after 12th Science

Understanding Metallurgy

The process of extraction of the metals in their pure form is known as Metallurgy and all these compounds of minerals are mixed including soil, limestone, and rocks, and form minerals. The extraction of metals from the minerals happens at a very low cost and very little effort is required. These minerals are said to be ores. Some substance is said to be added to the charge in the furnace to remove the gangue which is known as impurities is known as flux. So, metallurgy leads to the purification of metals and the formation of alloys.

It is indispensable to understand the basic principles of metallurgy. So, here are some of the main ones mentioned below.

  1. The first stage of the metallurgy leads to crushing and grinding the ores and converting them into fine powder in a crusher or ball mill. This whole process of crushing and then grinding to form this fine powder is known as Pulverization.

  2. The second stage leads to the removal of impurities from the ore and therefore it is known as the concentration of ores and minerals, or ore dressing, and this concentration of ores happens by following these important methods.

Hydrolytic method-The pour of ore over a sloping and vibrating corrugated table with grooves leads to the hydrolytic method. Water flows from the surface and the denser ore particles get settled in the grooves and the impurities get removed because of water.

Magnetic separation- Firstly the crushed ore is placed on the conveyor belt and then this belt rotates around the two wheels. This one wheel is magnetic and that's a reason why magnetic particles get attracted to this magnetic wheel and the other one is non-magnetic so other particles get separated from the magnetic one and fall apart.

Froth floatation- The crushed ore is placed on the large tank which consists of oil and water inside it. A current of the compressed air is passed through and the ore gets wet because of the presence of oil and is separated from the impurities present in it in the form of froth. Ore is lighter in weight and therefore it gets settled on the surface, and the impurities remain behind.

Roasting and calcination- The process of heating the concentrated ore in the presence of oxygen is known as roasting and this is applied in the case of the sulfide ores. The heating process of ores containing the carbonate or hydrated oxides is done in the absence of air so that ores would start melting and this whole process is known as calcination.

It is important for the student to prepare, practice, and revise the notes of Metallurgy innumerable times because the key to scoring better includes regular revision. Vedantu provides you with some sample questions and easy access to them. You just need to visit their official website and download them. Here are some of the important questions and answers listed.

FAQs on ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Revision Notes Chapter 7 - Metallurgy

1. What are those three classes in which elements are classified?

They are classified into three parts-Metals, Non-Metals, and Metalloids.

Metals are found on the left side of the periodic table. They tend to donate electrons (form cations) and form simple ionic compounds with non-metallic anions. Most of the 118 known elements are metals. 

Non-metals are found on the right side of the periodic table. They tend to attract electrons (form anions) and combine with metal cations to form ions or share them with other non-metals to form covalent bonds. There are nineteen non-metals if we consider the "last two" that are not well characterized and have short lifetimes. 

Metalloids - span a ladder-like region between metals and nonmetals. Its properties are somewhere between metals and nonmetals (in variable proportions). There are only seven metalloids.

2. Name the first metal used by the man?

Copper was one of the primary metals which had been used by human beings. The basic and the most important reason for its early discovery is that copper will naturally occur in comparatively pure forms. Researchers currently believe that copper came of standard use for a period—which is delineated as the Copper Age—prior to its substitution by bronze. Pure copper is very soft in nature and creating it ineffective in the manufacturing of weapons and tools. Two of the world’s oldest civilizations taught us the application of copper and they were  – Chaldea and Sumer. Copper is mixed with different metals to create an alloy like bronze or brass.

3. The metal which is a component of 

a. Blood pigment

b. Plant pigment

a. Iron ( Fe ) is a metal that is a constituent of the blood pigment. Iron is considered to be an indispensable part of human life and the reason behind this is that it has a lot of functions like helping in the metabolism process, transportation of oxygen, DNA synthesis, and electron transport. It is a part of complex processes where iron is considered to be very valuable. For example, there is a requirement of iron in the production of red blood cells.

b. Magnesium ( Mg ) is a metal that is a constituent of the plant pigment. Magnesium is a metal that is a constituent of the plant pigment. Magnesium may be a permanent constituent of plant and animal organisms and the presence of magnesium content could be 1000 to 100 percent. In some of the species like those of algae that get collected up to 3 percent in the form ashes of magnesium. Additionally, the presence of foraminifera is up to 3.5 percent of magnesium and calciferous sponges are 4 percent of magnesium, which are magnesium concentrators. Magnesium exists in chlorophyll as the green pigment of plants. It also happens in all cell organelles of plants and in the ribosomes of all living organisms.

4. How would you define metals and non-metal based on electron loss or gain?

Metal is defined as the element which leads to the formation of positive ions by the loss of electrons. Metals are minerals or can be considered substances that occur or form naturally underneath the floor of the Earth. The appearance of most of the metals is lustrous or shiny. They are considered or delineated as inorganic and the reason behind this is that they may be made up of substances that could be non-living or were never alive.  

Non-metal is an element that leads to the formation of negative ions by the gain of electrons. Non-metals have low electrical conductivities. The low or non-existent electrical physical phenomenon is the most significant property that distinguishes non-metals from metals. Non-metals have high electronegativities. This means that the atoms of nonmetals have a robust tendency that brings or attracts in a lot of electrons than what they might ordinarily have.

5. Select from the following list:

Fe2O3, NO, MN2O7, PbO

a. Basic Oxide......

b. Acidic Oxide.....

c. Neutral Oxide.....

d. Amphoteric Oxide.......

a. Fe2O3

Fe2O3 is found in nature very abundantly and widely distributed. It is a natural chemical complex made up of iron and oxygen. Iron oxide is vital for humans and useful in most geological and biological activities. This iron oxide may be required for the study of its particular properties or used as a starting material for other processes.

b. MN2O7

Manganese oxide is an inorganic compound and has the formula Mn2O7. It tends towards being a highly reactive and dangerous oxidizing agent and is the acid anhydride of permanganic acid.

c. NO

They are neither acidic nor basic.

d. PbO

Lead oxide is known as lead monoxide and is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.

6. Give a short account of the heating effect on metal carbonates based on the activity series.

Na and K are the metals that are positioned higher in the activity series and are stable in heat and soluble in water. On the other hand metals like Ca, Al, Mg, Pb, Fe, Cu get decomposed on heating with decreasing vigour to form a metal oxide and carbon dioxide. The metals which are placed and positioned below in the activity series like Hg, Ag decompose on heating to form metal, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.

7. What is corrosion and what are the necessary conditions required for corrosion?

When the surface of the metal comes under the impact of air, moisture  then the metal gets corroded and this whole process is known as corrosion.

There are some necessary conditions required for corrosion and they are as follows:

a. There should be the presence of oxygen and moisture.

b. Metals which are placed or positioned higher in the activity series get corroded faster and easily.