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Major Domains of the Earth

Last updated date: 23rd May 2024
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We know that life only exists on our planet Earth. There are all the things available that sustain life. It is called a Blue planet and it is the only one where water in liquid form is present. Here, human settlements exist. So, what are the various domains that make our planet a unique one from others? In this article, we will be talking about the major domains of the Earth and it is related to all concepts which will help the students to understand the basic topic of the domains of Earth. This article will surely increase your knowledge and help you with your studies.

Major Domains of the Earth

The surface of our planet is complex where different domains or zones interact or affect or overlap each other. Domain meaning in Geography is simply related to the specific location and which is related to any geographical feature. Different domains of Earth are:

  • Lithosphere (land)

  • Hydrosphere (water)

  • Atmosphere (air)

  • Biosphere (life)


The solid part of the Earth which consists of rocks or soil etc. is called the Lithosphere. The layers of soil contain nutrients that sustain organisms whereas rocks are also sources of various minerals. Our Earth can be divided into two parts, namely the continents and the oceans. The elevation of the land is taken from the level of the sea which is taken as zero because the level of its sea remains the same everywhere. The highest point of the Earth which is 8,848 metres above sea level is Mount Everest.

Continents of the Earth

You will find seven continents that are separated by the water bodies on our planet Earth. These are explained below and check out the map given below:

(Image will be Uploaded Soon)

(Image will be Uploaded Soon)

1. Asia

  • It is the largest continent.

  • In terms of land area, it covers about one-third of the total land.

  • It is present in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  • There are 48 countries as recognized by the United Nations.

  • The largest country in the world i.e. Russia is present here.

  • It is also known as the most populous continent as well.

  • The two most populous countries are present here.

  • It also consists of the World's highest mountain ranges.

  • The Ural Mountains separate it from Europe and the Sinai Peninsula and Red sea separate it from Africa.

2. Africa

  • It is the second largest.

  • All the three lines that are the Equator, Tropic of Cancer, and Tropic of Capricorn pass through this.

  • Most of its part lies in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • The Great Sahara Desert of the World is present here.

  • The longest river in the world is also present here.

  • 54 countries are here.

  • The famous and second-largest lake in the world i.e. Lake Victoria is also part of this continent.

3. North America

  • It is the third -largest.

  • A very narrow strip of land namely the isthmus of Panama connects it with South America.

  • It is present in the North-West Hemisphere.

  • It consists of 23 countries.

  • The largest island of the world namely Greenland is part of this.

  • The largest freshwater lake namely Lake superior is part of this continent.

  • The Bering strait separates it from Russia or we can say from Asia.

4. South America

  • It is the 4th largest.

  • It mostly lies in the Southern Hemisphere.

  • The lungs of our planet i.e. the great Amazon forest are present here.

  • The longest river namely Amazon also flows here.

  • The longest mountain ranges namely the Andes are also part of this continent.

  • Twelve  countries are present here.

5. Antarctica 

  • It is the 5th largest.

  • It completely lies in the Southern Hemisphere.

  • The south pole is the centre of this continent.

  • It is covered with ice sheets.

  • No human settlements are there.

  • Research stations of many countries are present here.

  • The names of such research stations are Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.

6. Europe

  • It comes at 6th number in terms of size.

  • The combination of Europe and Asia is called Eurasia.

  • It is surrounded by different water bodies from the three sides.

  • The Arctic Circle passes through it.

  • Fifty countries are present here.

  • It has a few countries which it shares with other continents like Asia and Africa.

  • The smallest country namely the Vatican City of the world is part of this.

7. Australia

  • It is the smallest continent.

  • It is actually an island country.

  • It lies in the Southern Hemisphere.

  • It has 6 states.

  • It is the largest country without any land border.

  • The biggest coral reef in the world namely the Great Barrier Reef is present here.


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(Image will be Uploaded Soon)

This is one of the Important domains of the Earth. It is the only planet where water is there in liquid form. Our planet is also called the Blue planet. Around 71 % of the Earth is covered with water. It has water in different forms, namely oceans, rivers, lakes, glaciers, etc. Most of the water is present in oceans which is more than 97% of the total water and that is not fit for human use because it is salty. Only a small percentage of freshwater is present on our planet which is fit for human purposes.


They cover around 71 percent of the total area of our planet and there are five oceans in the world which are mentioned below. 



1. Pacific

  • It is the largest ocean.

  • The equator divides it into two parts, namely the North Pacific and the South Pacific.

  • The meaning of the term Pacific is peaceful.

  • It is also the deepest ocean.

  • It covers around 30% of the Earth.

2. Atlantic

  • It means "Sea of Atlas".

  • It is the second largest.

  • It covers around 25% of the Earth.

  • The equator divides it into North Atlantic and South Atlantic.

3. Indian

  • It is the third -largest.

  • Its name comes from the Indian peninsula.

  • It is the only ocean to have a name from a country.

  • The most famous Suez canal is part of this.

4. Southern

  • It is present in the southern hemisphere.

  • It surrounds the continent of Antarctica.

  • The other names of this ocean are the Antarctic ocean, South Polar Ocean, and Austral ocean.

  • It is the youngest ocean.

  • It covers only 6% of the Earth and it is the second smallest.

5. Arctic

  • It is the smallest ocean.

  • It is present beyond 60°N.

  • It covers around 3% of the Earth.

  • The countries that share boundaries with it are Canada and the United States, Russia, Norway, Iceland, and Greenland.


The thin layer of air which is a combination of various gases around the Earth is one of the most important domains and an integral part of the planet. This layer is known as the atmosphere. The composition of various gases in the atmosphere are mentioned below:

It extends to a height of about 1600 km and on the basis of various properties like temperature or composition etc., iIt can be divided into five layers which are mentioned below:

  • Troposphere

  • Stratosphere

  • Mesosphere

  • Thermosphere

  • Exosphere

The density of gases varies with location and it keeps on decreasing as we go up along with the temperature as well. This is the reason why climbers or mountaineers have to take oxygen cylinders with them because they feel breathing problems at that much height. 


It is the combination of all the above-mentioned domains on the Earth and it is the zone where life actually exists. It is the most unique domain of planet Earth which can not be seen on any other planets. Various species from microorganisms to animals etc. all are connected with each other for survival including humans. All three domains interact here and also affect each other because everyone wants to fulfil his needs. 

For example,

  • Deforestation for wood.

  • Clearing of land for agriculture activities.

  • Natural calamities like floods, and earthquakes affect the biosphere.

  • Discharge of industrial waste into the water or harmful gases in the air.

  • An increase in carbon dioxide leads to an increase in planet temperature.


Thus, in this article, we have covered the various different domains of Earth properly. We have learned about the oceans, the continents, atmosphere, biosphere, etc. This article will help you to understand various domains and domain examples Science and Geography which usually talks about. As we have read that the interaction of all the domains also affects each other and the temperature of the planet is also rising day by day, we have to make a balance in all these domains, otherwise, the problems will continue to rise. This article will teach the students of Class 6 and upper classes to get iImportant and basic information about various Earth's domains. Besides this, it will also increase your knowledge about important geographical concepts. 

We have read about all the major domains of the Earth’s planet which makes it unique. Let's practice some FAQs.:

FAQs on Major Domains of the Earth

Which is the most important domain and why?

Well, speaking of the most important domain of the Earth, it all boils down to the biosphere. The biosphere is also called the ecosphere. That is because it is the only domain out of 4 major domains of the Earth (namely lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere) that supports life. All the living things, in the biosphere, depend on one another. That is why studying the biosphere is the most important thing for students.

Which domain of the Earth supports life?

As discussed in the earlier question, the only domain of the Earth that supports life is the biosphere. It is the fourth domain of our planet. The other three domains are the lithosphere, the atmosphere, and the hydrosphere. But all of these three domains do not support life at all. The biosphere is the only domain where:

  • the land bodies like continents, islands, etc., 

  • the water bodies like rivers, seas, oceans, lakes, etc., 

  • and the air 

react with each other. This can result in a supportive environment for life forms to flourish. 

What is the domain of water on Earth called?

The hydrosphere is the name given for the domain on the Earth that is composed of water. Hydrosphere consists of water that is in the form of oceans, lakes, rivers, and seas. It also comprises water in the air that is in the form of water vapour. Underground water bodies are also a part of the hydrosphere. Even the ice bodies like snow and frozen water bodies are a major part of the hydrosphere. Since water is the source of all life forms on the Earth, deep knowledge about the hydrosphere is important.

What are Earth's major landforms?

A landform is a term given for the parts of the Earth that are not covered in water. Thus, we can include mountains, plateaus, plains, and valleys. These are the parts of the planet that can be caused by a number of natural activities. The natural activities can include tectonic movements, erosion caused by wind or by water (for example, heavy rains or floods), faulting, and folding. It can also be caused by volcanic activity.