Life in Ganga Brahmaputra Basin

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In this topic, we'll study one of the world's most famous river basins, the Ganga Brahmaputra basin which is driven by the two important rivers, i.e., the Ganga and the Brahmaputra which flows in the Indian subcontinent. We'll cover the life in Ganga Brahmaputra Basin including the location, topography, agriculture, tourism, transport, etc.


Ganga Brahmaputra River Basin

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The basin formed by the tributaries of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers is called the Ganga Brahmaputra Basin. The fertile plains, the Himalayas, and the delta of Sunderbans are the main features of this basin. This area is also replenished by the heavy showers of the monsoon season, bringing rainfall from June to September every year. This basin is having hot summers and cold winters.


Ganga Brahmaputra Basin Location

The Ganga Brahmaputra basin lies in the Indian subcontinent. It lies in the subtropical regions situated between 10°N to 30°S latitudes.

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States in Which Ganga Brahmaputra Basin Lies

The Ganga Brahmaputra Basin covers a large area in the continent of Asia. It is not limited to any one country or state. It is spread across five countries. The countries that the Ganga Brahmaputra Basin covers are as follows:

  • India

  • Nepal

  • China

  • Bhutan

  • Bangladesh

In India, it is spread across 10 states and 1 Union Territory. The names of the States or Union Territories that the Ganga Brahmaputra Basin covers are as follows:

  • Uttar Pradesh

  • Uttarakhand

  • Madhya Pradesh

  • Rajasthan

  • Himachal Pradesh

  • Haryana

  • Chattisgarh

  • Jharkhand

  • Bihar

  • West Bengal

  • Delhi

Tributaries of Ganga Brahmaputra Basin

The Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers have several left bank and right bank tributaries. Ghaghra, Gandhak, Son, Chambal, and Kosi rivers are the tributaries of the Ganga river which join the basin whereas Teesta and Meghna are the tributaries of the Brahmaputra river which joins the basin. Check out the map given above to get a clear idea of the tributaries.


Topography of the Ganga Brahmaputra Basin

The topography of the basin is not the same everywhere. It is varied in different places. The plains of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra basin are one of their kind and they are world-famous. However, the basin not only includes the plains but also the mountain regions which are having steep slopes such as the mountain ranges of Uttarakhand, Sikkim, regions of Nepal, etc.


Demography of the Ganga Brahmaputra Basin

The demography of the region depends upon various factors like the topography of the region, the climate, rainfall, infrastructural facilities, livelihood opportunities, etc.

  • The plains of the basin are densely populated such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, etc.

  • The mountain regions of the basin are having less population such as Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, etc.

Wildlife in Ganga Brahmaputra Basin

There is a wide range of wildlife found in the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin. The important Ganga Brahmaputra Basin animals are as under.

  • The common wildlife includes elephants, tigers, monkeys, and deers.

  • One Horned Rhinoceros of India is also part of this basin, having the maximum population in Kaziranga National Park, Assam which comes under the Brahmaputra Plains.

  • Bengal Tiger, crocodiles, and alligators are found in the delta region.

  • Rohu, Catla, and Bisla are the most popular fishes found here.

  • A unique variety of dolphins is found in the freshwater of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers, namely the Susu Dolphin which is also called a Blind dolphin. The presence of this dolphin indicates the good health of the rivers.

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Vegetation and Agriculture of the Ganga Brahmaputra Basin

The basin is a mixture of different kinds of landforms which leads to different vegetation and agricultural activities.

  • In the plain areas, tropical deciduous trees are there. The bamboo groves are common in the plains of the Brahmaputra.

  • Mangrove forests are found in the delta regions of the basin.

  • Coniferous trees are found in hilly areas of Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh, and Sikkim.

  • Paddy is the main crop here because of the easy and sufficient availability of water.

  • Wheat, maize, millets, gram are the other crops.

  • Cash crops like sugarcane and jute also grown here.

  • Banana and tea plantations, silk cultivation are also part of agricultural activities here.

Transport and Tourism

All forms of transportation are well developed in the Ganga Brahmaputra Basin.

  • Roadways are railways that are the major source of transportation developed everywhere in this basin. The two longest National highways ie. NH 44 and NH 27 passes through this basin.

  • The railway station of Gorakhpur Junction, having the World's longest platform is also situated here. 

  • Among the National Waterways, NW 1 and NW 2 are also developed here.

  • Various National and International airports are also present and we'll develop here.

A lot of tourist places are also found here in the basin which is one of the major sources of livelihood.

  • One of the seven wonders of the modern world i.e The Taj Mahal is situated here.

  • Various National Parks or Tiger reserves or Ramsar Sites are part of the basin. For example Panna National Park, Kaziranga National Park, Sunderbans, etc.

  • Various temples or stupas are also present here such as the Gaya Buddhist site, temples of Varanasi, etc.

Did You Know?

The Ganga is a sacred river in the country. The water of the Ganga got polluted so much over the years because of heavy industries and various rituals. Thus, the Government of India launched Namami Ganga Programme for the conservation and cleanliness of the water of the Ganga.


Here we have covered life in the Ganga Brahmaputra basin. Under this, we learned about Ganga Brahmaputra Basin location, tributaries of and wildlife in Ganga Brahmaputra basin or states in which Ganga Brahmaputra basin lies, etc. These notes will help the students of Class 7 and 9. Not only this, but these will also help in enriching your General Knowledge.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Question 1. Write a Short Note on the Ganga Brahmaputra Basin.

Answer. The basin formed by the tributaries of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers is called the Ganga Brahmaputra Basin. The fertile plains of the basin, the Himalayas, and the delta of Sunderbans are the main features of this basin. This area is also taken care of by the monsoon climate which brings rainfall from June to September every year. This basin is having hot summers and cold winters.

Question 2. Write a Note on Tributaries and the Location of the Ganga Brahmaputra Basin.

Answer. The Ganga Brahmaputra Basin lies in the Indian Subcontinent. It lies in the subtropical regions situated between 10°N to 30°S latitudes.


The Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers have a lot of left bank and right bank tributaries. The tributaries of the Ganga which join the basin are the Ghaghra, the Gandhak, the Son, the Chambal, and the Kosi river whereas the tributaries of the Brahmaputra river which joins the basin are the Teesta and the Meghna. Check out the map given above.

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