What Are Mineral and Energy Resources ?

Introduction

Resources are basically anything that is used to provide benefits to humans. The term 'resources' is usually used in the context of natural resources which are un-exhaustible and renewable. Mineral resources, as the name suggests, are resources that come from minerals. Energy resources, on the other hand, encompass all sources of energy, both renewable and non-renewable. 


So, what are minerals? Well, as per the Geologists, a homogeneous naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure is called a mineral which is found in various forms in nature. The formation of the particular mineral depends upon the physical and chemical conditions of the material. 


Minerals are the greatest gift of nature, and these minerals help in the development of a country in all spheres. There are various types of minerals present in nature that are obtained from rocks or other sources. In this article, you will learn about minerals and resources, the main types of minerals, etc. It will help you to understand some of the very important concepts of Geography, which will help you in all the higher classes of Geography. 


This page classifies minerals and energy resources along with their types in detail.


Classification of Minerals

There are various types of minerals that are classified below. They can be divided into three categories.


Metallic Minerals

These are those minerals that contain iron or other metallic elements in their composition, which are generally found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. They can be formed in different products after melting. The different kinds of minerals are discussed here. 


  1. Ferrous Minerals: These are those minerals that contain iron. For example, iron ore, manganese ore, nickel, and cobalt. These minerals provide the base for metallurgical Industries' development.

  2. Non-Ferrous Minerals: These are those minerals that don't contain iron as their larger composition, for example, gold, silver, lead, bauxite, aluminium, nickel, tin, titanium, etc.


Non-Metallic Minerals

These are the minerals that are good for cement, glass, ceramics, and lime products Industries. These minerals are found in sedimentary rocks or young fold mountains and cannot be formed into other products after melting. For example, sand, clay, marble, limestone, etc.


Distribution of Different Types of Minerals in India

India is one of the richest countries in terms of mineral resources. The distribution of some minerals are mentioned below:


Iron Ore

India is rich with fine quality iron ore, which is the base and backbone of the industrial sector. There are various forms of iron ore as well, in which Magnetite has iron ore up to 70% and is the finest iron ore and Hematite is the most important in terms of quantity used and having 50-60% iron ore. The distribution of iron ore in India is represented in the following pie chart as per the 2016-17 data:


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Manganese

This mineral is mostly found in South or Central India which is used for the production of steel and ferroalloys, bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, etc. The distribution of manganese in India is represented in the following pie chart:


Copper

It is used in electrical cables, electronics, and chemical industries. India has a deficiency of this mineral. The distribution of copper in India is represented in the following map. 

Following are the major producer of copper:

  • Balaghat Mines, Madhya Pradesh

  • Khetri Mines, Rajasthan

  • Singhbhum, Jharkhand


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Bauxite

Clay-like substances such as alumina or aluminium are obtained from bauxite. This mineral is formed due to the decomposition of the wide variety of rocks having aluminium silicates. In India, this is found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills, and the Bilaspur-Katni region. The state of Andhra Pradesh is an important producer of this mineral. The distribution of this mineral in India is represented by the following chart:


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Limestone

It is found in rocks having the composition of calcium carbonate or calcium and magnesium carbonates. It is generally found in sedimentary rocks and works as a basic mineral for the cement industry. The distribution of this mineral is represented in the following chart:


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Types of Minerals 

Minerals can be broadly classified into two types on the basis of their occurrence: metallic and non-metallic. Metallic minerals are those that are found in the form of solid masses of metal, for example, gold, silver, copper, etc. Non-metallic minerals, on the other hand, are not found in the form of metals and include materials such as coal, limestone, etc. 


Minerals are found in nature in the form of rocks. The three main types of rocks are: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) solidifies. This can happen either on the earth's surface (extrusive igneous rocks) or beneath the earth's surface (intrusive igneous rocks). Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of solid material from a liquid or gas. The most common type of sedimentary rock is limestone, which is made up of the shells of marine organisms. Metamorphic rocks are formed when one type of rock is changed into another through extreme heat or pressure. 


There are around 4000 known minerals, of which only about 20% are used commercially. Metallic minerals are generally more useful than non-metallic minerals. The main metallic minerals are gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, etc. Non-metallic minerals can be further classified into two types: fuel minerals and industrial minerals. Fuel minerals are those that are used to produce energy, for example, coal and oil. Industrial minerals are those that are used in the manufacturing of various products. For example, limestone is used to make cement. 


Mode of Occurrence of Minerals

An "ore" means the accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements where these minerals are found. There are the following forms in which they occur:


  • They are found in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints, etc., in the Igneous and metamorphic rocks. Veins are called smaller occurrences, and loads are called larger occurrences. For example, tin, copper, zinc, and lead, etc.

  • They are also found in the beds or layers of the sedimentary rocks, which have been formed because of accumulation, deposition, etc. For example, coal, gypsum, potash salt, etc.

  • They are also found in the process of decomposition of surface rocks and leaving weathered & residual mass material, for example, bauxite etc.

  • They are also found in alluvial deposits and ocean waters.


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Energy Resources and their Types

Minerals are also classified into energy resources. There are various sources of energy such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc., which are non-renewable resources, and other sources of energy are solar energy, wind energy, etc., which are non-renewable resources. 


They are of two types:


  1. Conventional Sources of energy are those which are traditionally used, such as coal, petroleum, etc.

  2. Non-Conventional Sources of energy are those which are not traditional but considered modern sources of energy such as solar energy, tidal energy, wind energy, etc.


Coal

Coal is one of the most important and most used sources of energy in India. It took millions of years to form this source of energy. 67% of India's energy requirements depend on coal. Various types of coal are:


  • Anthracite

  • Bituminous

  • Lignite

  • Peat

The following map represents the coal distribution in India:


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Petroleum

It is the second most vital source of energy in India which acts as a raw material for a number of Industries in India. Mumbai High is the major producer in India. The distribution of oil refineries are represented in India are given below:


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Natural Gas

It is also a very important source of energy that acts as a raw material for various industries like petrochemical industries. It is a mixture of hydrocarbon gas, mainly methane but also includes other gases as well. It is an environmentally friendly source. The distribution of reserves of natural gas are represented in the following map:


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Solar Energy

It is a non-renewable source of energy that is directly obtained from the Sun and which will never be exhausted. It is an example of clean energy that reduces carbon footprints as well and helps in reducing electricity bills. India has great potential for this form of energy as it is a tropical country, and India is working on using its full potential. The following map shows the potential of India in terms of solar energy:


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Wind Energy

It is also a non-renewable energy source that is environmentally friendly and depends upon the location of usage. This is clean energy and has less operating cost as well. India has not used its full potential in this regard and is still working on it. The following map shows the wind power potential of India:


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Tidal Energy

Power is obtained by converting the energy of the tides into electricity and other power with the help of modern technology. The mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy through various methods using the tides. India has great potential for this form of energy as well because it is surrounded by three water bodies from three sides. The following map shows the potential of tidal energy in India:


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Here, we have covered the various important chapters of Geography, i.e. minerals and energy resources. These notes will help the students of Class 9 or higher classes to understand minerals and resources. After going through these notes, you will be able to answer the questions like explain minerals, how many types of minerals and resources are there etc. These notes will help the students to create a base of understanding regarding the minerals and resources.


From our context, we understand that  minerals are found from ore and they are classified into metallic, non-Metallic, and energy minerals. Chapter 5 - Minerals and Energy Resources has a great significance in Class 10 Geography exam. Students need to study all the topics related to minerals, their classification and types along with this, 

energy Resources, conventional Resources, non-Conventional Resources, Geothermal Energy, and conservation of energy resources. You may find the PDF from this page.

FAQs on What Are Mineral and Energy Resources ?

1.What are Minerals? How Many Different Kinds of Minerals are there?

As per the Geologists, a homogeneous naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure is called mineral which is found in various forms in nature.


The formation of the particular mineral depends upon the physical and chemical conditions of the material. There are various types of minerals that are classified into three categories. Metallic minerals are those minerals that contain iron or other metallic elements in their composition which are generally found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. They can be formed in different products after melting. Non-Metallic are those that are good for cement, glass, ceramics, and lime products Industries. 


These minerals are found in sedimentary rocks or young fold mountains and cannot be formed into other products after melting. For example sand, clay, marble, limestone, etc. Minerals are also classified into energy resources. There are various sources of energy such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc which are non-renewable resources and other sources of energy are solar energy, wind energy, etc which are non-renewable resources.

2.What Do You Mean By Energy Resources? Give Examples.

Minerals are also classified into energy resources. There are various sources of energy such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc which are non-renewable resources and other sources of energy are solar energy, wind energy, etc which are non-renewable resources. They are of two types. Conventional sources of energy are those which are traditionally used such as coal, petroleum, etc. whereas Non-conventional sources of energy are those which are not traditional but considered as modern sources of energy such as solar energy, tidal energy, wind energy, etc. These modern sources of energy are considered as the future of energy of the World.

3.What is a non-renewable resource?

Non-renewable resources are natural resources that cannot be replaced once they are used. These resources are limited in quantity, and once they are gone, they cannot be replaced. The most common form of a non-renewable resource is fossil fuels such as coal and oil. These resources are used to generate electricity and power various machines. Other examples of non-renewable resources are minerals like diamonds and ores. We should note that non-renewable resources are not renewable, and once they are gone, they cannot be replaced. Students should also note that non-renewable resources deplete over time due to human activities like mining, drilling, etc.

4.What is a renewable resource?

Renewable resources are natural resources that can be replaced once they have been used. These resources are constantly being replenished by nature, which means that their supply never runs out completely. The most common example of a renewable resource is sunlight which can be harnessed to generate electricity. Other examples of renewable resources include wind energy and hydropower. One should note that a major portion of the world's energy supply comes from non-renewable resources such as coal, oil etc. This is because most renewable resources are unreliable and cannot be harnessed to meet the high demand for energy.

5.What is a resource?

A resource is anything that can be used to meet a need or want. This can include natural resources such as minerals and energy resources, as well as human-made resources such as technology and knowledge. The most common use of resources is in the production of materials and goods. These are used to meet the needs and wants of humans. There are three types of resources – natural, human-made and intellectual. Natural resources are found in the earth's crust and can be used by humans for various purposes. The most common use of natural resources is in the production of materials such as metals and plastics. These are used in the industry to produce consumer goods. Human-made resources are man-made materials that can be used for various purposes. The most common use of human-made resources is in the production of materials such as metals and plastics.

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