Coordination refers to the synthesis and integration of all the operations involved in a business to reach a predefined goal. In an organization, coordination is achieved through proper management and synchronization of the various departments directing the process as a whole towards set objectives. Effective coordination in an organization includes coordination of the internal as well as the external factors. There are various types of coordination in management and techniques of coordination.
Coordination increases the productivity and efficiency in an organization, brings organizational dynamics at both the micro as well as macro levels to defined synchrony, and ensures that the intra-organizational and inter-organizational groups have their roles connected effectively while developing trustworthiness within competing groups at the same time. This also ensures the organizational objectives and tasks to get clarified and established. The main types of coordination in management are discussed below.
Broadly, coordination in management can be divided into two types- internal and external coordination.
Internal Coordination is aimed at building a strong bond between the executives, the managers, the departments, the divisions, all the branches and the workers or the employees. This establishes an integration of organizational activities. Coordination examples or types for internal coordination are as follows:
Vertical Coordination: Vertical coordination includes the coordination of tasks from superiors to the subordinates and vice versa. A coordination example can be stated as the coordination of a particular task from a sales manager to his supervisors. This will also facilitate ensured work synchrony from the supervisors with the manager.
Horizontal Coordination: Horizontal coordination builds strong relationships among same rank holding employees. This ensures better performance with increased productivity. Coordination examples can include those among the managers, the supervisors or the co-employees.
External coordination is aimed at establishing connections between the employees in a business organization with people outside of the organization. Such relationships provide a better comprehension of the outside world, in the process providing an analysis of the marketing agencies, the public, the customers at various levels, the competing organizations, the agencies of the government and the financial institutions. Public Relations Officers (PROs) play the most significant role in such cases building relationships between the organizations and the people outside of it.
It can thus be noted that as a part of internal coordination, employees report vertically to the supervisors as well as the subordinates, and horizontally with the coworkers or colleagues. As a part of external coordination, relationships are established between the organization and the outsiders. Both internal and external coordination is equally important for the successful running of an organization.
Coordination in various managerial operations can be achieved through the following strategic actions:
Planning: Coordination in planning makes managers frame plans in the most effective order, analyzing what to include and what not to. Planning with coordination eases the procedure with the help of mutual discussion and constant exchange of ideas building productivity.
Organizing: Immense coordination is required as a part of organizing for the performance of business operations, directed towards a synchronized approach towards the fulfilment of organizational objectives.
Staffing: Coordination in staffing ensures the placement of the right people in the right jobs. It specifies the staff requirements helping the management to recruit skilled employees with the required qualifications.
Directing: Subordinates on receiving orders and instructions work accordingly, only with proper coordination and integration. As a part of coordination in directing, managers are focused on building a coordinating environment in the organization.
Controlling: Coordination ensures a controlled working structure in an organization. It makes the management ensure that the established standards are recognized and met with the actual performance.
Therefore, these are the types of coordination, explained with the help of appropriate coordination examples. Coordination is an important tool for establishing a healthy work environment in an organization. The management should aim for it and train its officials accordingly.
1. What are the techniques of Coordination in Management?
Ans. The following are the key techniques of coordination in management:
Proper Planning: Planning must be directed towards the most efficient way of achieving organizational goals. It is the primary stage in the techniques of coordination where every employee or every member is well acquainted.
Simplified Organizational Structure: There should be a simplified structure defining the line of authority in an organization. This helps in avoiding conflicts and builds a coordinating work environment.
Communication: Effective communication is necessary for the superiors and the employees to mutually understand each other and solve conflicts, in the process of working in coordination.
Leadership: Leadership is a major contributor to a coordinating organizational structure. It ensures proper work structure bringing out the best from every employee.
Chain of Command: There should always remain a chain of command in the hierarchical structure of the organization for proper coordination.
2. What is the importance of Coordination in an Organization?
Ans. Coordination in organizations helps in building an effective organizational structure directed towards the organizational goals. It facilitates the job of eradicating conflicts and resistances, in the process, increasing performance and productivity.
3. What are Mary P. Follett’s 4 main principles of Coordination?
Ans. The 4 principles of coordination as stated by Mary P. Follett are as follows:
Principle of Early Stage: Coordination has to be initiated from the early stages of planning.
Principle of Continuity: Coordination in an organization must continue to exist without ever coming to a halt.
Principle of Direct Contact: Direct contact should be established between the managers and the other employees to facilitate the sound running of the business.
Principle of Reciprocal Relations: The effect of decisions should be analyzed before implementation with respect to the employees and the management staff.