Presentation of Data

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Presentation of Data and Information

Statistics is all about data. Presenting data effectively and efficiently is an art. You may have uncovered many truths that are complex and need long explanations while writing. This is where the importance of presentation of data comes in. You have to present your findings in such a way that the readers can go through them quickly and understand each and every point that you wanted to showcase. As time progressed and new and complex research started happening, people realised the importance of the presentation of data to make sense of the findings.


Define Data Presentation

Data presentation is defined as the process of using various graphical formats to visually represent the relationship between two or more data sets so that an informed decision can be made based on them.


Types of Data Presentation

Broadly speaking, there are three methods of data presentation:

  • Textual

  • Tabular

  • Diagrammatic

Textual Ways of Presenting Data

Out of the different methods of data presentation, this is the most simple one. You just write your findings in a coherent manner and your job is done. The demerit of this method is that one has to read the whole text to get a clear picture. Yes, introduction, summary and conclusion can help condense the information.


Tabular Ways of Data Presentation and Analysis

To avoid the complexities involved in the textual way of data presentation, people use tables and charts to present data. In this method, data is presented in rows and columns - just like you see in a cricket match showing who made how many runs. Each row and column has an attribute (name, year, sex, age and other things like these). It is against these attributes that data is written within a cell.


Diagrammatic Presentation: Graphical Presentation of Data In Statistics

This kind of data presentation and analysis method says a lot with dramatically short amounts of time.

Diagrammatic Presentation has been divided into further categories:


Geometric Diagram

When a Diagrammatic presentation involves shapes like a bar or circle, we call that a Geometric Diagram. Examples of Geometric Diagram


Bar Diagram

Simple Bar Diagram

Simple Bar Diagram is composed of rectangular bars. All of these bars have the same width and they are placed at an equal distance from each other. The bars are placed on the X-axis. The height or length of the bars is used as the means of measurement. So on the Y-axis, you have the measurement relevant to the data. 


Suppose, you want to present the run scored by each batsman in a game in the form of a bar chart. Mark the runs on the Y-axis - in ascending order from the bottom. So the lowest scorer will be represented in the form of the smallest bar and highest scorer in the form of the longest bar.

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Multiple Bar Diagram

In many states of India, electric bills have bar diagrams showing the consumption in the last 5 months. Along with these bars, they also have bars that show the consumption happened in the same months of the previous year. This kind of Bar Diagram is called Multiple Bar Diagrams.

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Component Bar Diagram

Sometimes, a bar is divided into two or more parts. For example, if there is a Bar Diagram, the bars of which show the percentage of male voters who voted and who didn’t and the female voters who voted and who didn’t. Instead of creating separate bars for who did and who did not, you can divide one bar into who did and who did not.


Pie Chart

A pie chart is a chart where you divide a pie (a circle) into different parts based on the data. Each of the data is first transformed into percentage and then that percentage figure is multiplied by 3.6 degrees. The result that you get is the angular degree of that corresponding data to be drawn in the pie chart. So, for example, you get 30 degrees as the result, on the pie chart you draw that angle from the centre.

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Frequency Diagram

Suppose you want to present data that shows how many students have 1 to 2 pens, how many have 3 to 5 pens, how many have 6 to 10 pens (grouped frequency) you do that with the help of a Frequency Diagram. A Frequency Diagram can be of many kinds:


Histogram

Where the grouped frequency of pens (from the above example) is written on the X-axis and the numbers of students are marked on the Y-axis. The data is presented in the form of bars.

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Frequency Polygon

When you join the midpoints of the upper side of the rectangles in a histogram, you get a Frequency Polygon


Frequency Curve 

When you draw a freehand line that passes through the points of the Frequency Polygon, you get a Frequency Curve.


Ogive 

Suppose 2 students got 0-20 marks in maths, 5 students got 20-30 marks and 4 students got 30-50 marks in Maths. So how many students got less than 50 marks? Yes, 5+2=7. And how many students got more than 20 marks? 5+4=9. This type of more than and less than data are represented in the form of the ogive. The meeting point of the less than and more than line will give you the Median.


Arithmetic Line Graph

If you want to see the trend of Corona infection vs the number of recoveries from January 2020 to December 2020, you can do that in the form of Arithmetic Line Graph. The months should be marked on the X-axis and the number of infections and recoveries are marked on the Y-axis. You can compare if the recovery is greater than the infection and if the recovery and infection are going at the same rate or not with the help of this Diagram.


Did You Know?

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher is known as the father of modern statistics.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the 4 Types of Tabular Presentation?

Tabular presentation method can be further divided into 4 categories:

  • Qualitative

  • Quantitative

  • Temporal

  • Spatial

Qualitative classification is done when the attributes in the table are some kind of ‘quality’ or feature. Suppose you want to make a table where you would show how many batsmen made half-centuries and how many batsmen made centuries in IPL 2020. Notice that the data would have only numbers - no age, sex, height is needed. This type of tabulation is called quantitative tabulation.


If you want to make a table that would inform in which year’s world cup, which team won. The classifying variable, here, is year or time. This kind of classification is called Temporal classification.


If you want to list the top 5 coldest places in the world. The classifying variable here would be a place in each case. Such kind of classification is called Spatial Classification.

2. Are Bar Charts and Histograms the Same?

No, they are not the same. With a histogram, you measure the frequency of quantitative data. With bar charts, you compare categorical data.

3. What is the Data Presentation Definition?

When research work is completed, the data gathered from it can be quite large and complex. Organising the data in a coherent, easy to understand, quick to read and the graphical way is called data presentation.