Titration of Hydrochloric Acid against Standard Sodium Carbonate

Dhristi JEE 2022-24

Titration of Na₂CO₃ with HCl

Methods of acid-base titration based on a sample dissolution exceeding normal acid, followed by back titration with a standard base is characterised in this experiment. Using bromophenol blue as an indicator, hydrochloric acid solutions were standardised against pure sodium carbonate. Here, we will study the titration of HCl and sodium carbonate in detail.



Determination of the strength of the diluted hydrochloric acid solution by titrating it against the normal sodium carbonate solution (M/10).



The hydrochloric acid solution can be titrated using a methyl orange indicator against the sodium carbonate solution. If a slightly acidic solution is titrated with a weak base, the endpoint is slightly acidic. The solution is slightly basic if a weak acid is titrated with a strong base since the salt produced is to a certain degree hydrolyzed. The reaction of sodium carbonate with HCl is given below.


Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


CO32-(aq) + 2H+(aq) → CO2(g) + H2O(l)


These are the hydrochloric acid and sodium carbonate equations.


In acid-base titrations, the amount of the acid becomes chemically equivalent to the amount of base present. The solution becomes neutral in the event of a strong acid and a strong base titration of the solution.


Materials Required

  1. Burette

  2. Pipette

  3. Conical flask

  4. Burette stand

  5. Funnel

  6. Stirrer

  7. White glazed tile

  8. Measuring flask

  9. Hydrochloric acid

  10. Sodium carbonate

  11. Methyl orange

  12. Watch glass


Procedure for Titration of HCl and Sodium Carbonate

A. Preparation of a Sodium Carbonate Standard Solution

  1. Sodium carbonate has a molecular weight of 106.

  2. The amount of sodium carbonate needed to make a 250mL solution is 1.325g.

  3. Prepare the standard solution by dissolving 1.325g of sodium carbonate in distilled water and adding the required amount of water to a 250ml measuring flask.

B. Titration of Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Carbonate Solution

  1. Wash, rinse, and fill the burette with M/10 Na2CO3 solution. Note the initial reading.

  2. Take 10cm3 of HCl solution with the help of a pipette and transfer it into a clean washed titration flask.

  3. Add 2 drops of methyl orange into the titration flask.

  4. Add M/10 sodium carbonate solution to the titration flask till the colour changes to light pink.

  5. Note the final reading and find out the volume of sodium carbonate solution used to neutralise the HCl solution.

  6. Repeat the experiment till you get concordant readings.


Volume of HCl solution = 10cm3.


The volume of sodium carbonate solution used = V cm3.


Initial Reading of the Burette

Final Reading of the Burette

Volume of Sodium Carbonate Solution Used.


a cm3

b cm3

(b-a) cm3


b cm3

c cm3

(c-b) cm3


c cm3

d cm3

(d-c) cm3



(Sodium carbonate) a1M1V1 = (HCl) a2M2V2.

2 × 1/10 × V = 1 × x × 10 x = V/5 Strength in g/L = molarity × molar mass = V5 × 36.5.



The strength of the hydrochloric acid solution is ________ g/L.



  1. Do not spill the material on the balance pan while measuring.

  2. Gently turn the balance knob.

  3. After weighing, put the weights in the weights box in the correct positions.

  4. Wash the watch glass thoroughly to ensure that not a single crystal remains on it.

  5. When moving the weighted substance, bring the watch glass close to the funnel and gently move it. It should be washed multiple times with distilled water.

  6. After the titration, wash the burette with water.

  7. To prevent applying distilled water above the mark on the neck of the measuring cylinder, the last few drops should be applied with a pipette.

Did You Know?

  • Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is a hydrogen chloride aqueous solution. It's a colourless liquid with a strong, pungent odour. It's considered a strong acid. In the digestive systems of most animal species, including humans, it is a component of gastric acid. Hydrochloric acid is a common laboratory reagent as well as a common industrial chemical.

  • The boiling and melting points, density, and pH of hydrochloric acid are all influenced by the concentration or molarity of HCl in the aqueous solution. They range from values for water at very low concentrations near 0 percent HCl to over 40 per cent HCl for fuming hydrochloric acid.

  • Hydrochloric acid is produced by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water in an industrial environment. Hydrogen chloride can be produced in a number of ways, but there are some precursors to hydrochloric acid. In the chlor alkali process, which produces hydroxide, hydrogen, and chlorine, the latter of which can be combined to produce HCl, large-scale production of hydrochloric acid is almost always incorporated with industrial-scale production of other chemicals.


This study material must have given you an overview of the topic titration of HCl and sodium carbonate. You must have got an insight into the topic and given your brain one more concept to store. 


Chemistry is often considered to be a challenging subject for most students. But, once given the right attention and effort, it can be more of an experimental subject. 

Let us starlight jump on to learn some of the proven tricks and techniques that will make chemistry simpler and also increase your ability to learn it. 

  • Review the study material and then attend the lecture 

The best technique to ace in chemistry is to do reading of the study material beforehand and then when you attend the class, you get to understand but while understanding you may find some points relatable which your mind will catch faster and store into it. Another good thing about it is that you already have read it, so you might have questions that will be solved then and there. From this technique, the class time is utilized more efficiently and also each lecture gives you more understanding that finally, leads to better results. 

  • Take good notes

Attending classes regularly and taking all the notes is vital. Notes can help you in the last days of preparation and also are very handy. You can only take good notes if you pay attention to the class and avoid distractions. Make sure that whatever notes you take, should be organized as it will help you to review the class that you have attended, whenever you want to. Also, another important advantage is that it forces you to write all the points which will, in turn, help you to remember the concepts easily. 

  • Focus on your work not grade

Chemistry is a subject that needs complete concentration. If you will shift your focus from learning and understanding the concepts of chemistry to score better grades, it would take away all the concentration which would surely affect your final results. Hence, students are advised to always focus on learning and understand that the grades would always follow. 

  • Use study groups

Using study groups is a very good way to manage the learning of any challenging subject. Chemistry is indeed a challenging subject that is full of formulas and symbols and vocabulary. Using a study group will help you to share insights with others and also hear out to them. You can also have a look at the notes they have, clear doubts, and exchange many ideas. However, creating a large group might also result in so much confusion and hence, students are advised to make a small group and make the most out of it. Your study sessions should not be very long, only till the time that you find it productive, and later, you should make time for self-study. 

  • Take advantage of lab time

There is no better way to learn chemistry than hands-on experience. Chemistry labs can be very helpful if you try to make the best use of them. Students shall never be missing any chance of being in a lab. This will help you strengthen your knowledge of chemistry and also enhance your understanding of the concepts

To conclude, based on your observations and understanding, you may come across a lot of study tips, tricks, techniques and suggestions but you may only pick up the ones that you think would suit you the best. 

There may be times when you might think that some strategy is working so well for your partner and you would also get the same results, but then, it doesn't work that way. 

Students are advised to work based on their study habits and patterns and not under the influence of others. 

Success might not always come easy but if you choose not to give up and keep moving ahead despite the challenges, it will come to you, sooner or later. This is what we shall be waiting for and let its vision fuel as continuously.

Book your Free Demo session
Get a flavour of LIVE classes here at Vedantu
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Best Way to Titrate a Solution of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 Against HCl?

Na2CO3 and NaHCO3  estimation in a mixture: Prepare a solution of distilled water in a 250 ml regular flask by correctly measuring around 2.0 g of the mixture. Using phenolphthalein as an indicator, slowly titrate 25 mL of this solution against regular hydrochloric acid. To concordance, repeat the process (Vp ml).

2. Why is Hydrochloric Acid not Used as a Primary Standard?

Primary Standards for Acid-Base Titrations:

Since both hydrochloric acid, HCl, and sulfuric acid, H2SO4, are readily available as condensed solutions that can be easily diluted, the concentration of the "concentrated" solution is not precisely determined, they are not suitable for use as primary criteria.

3. How do You Prepare and Standardize 0.1 N HCl?

Preparation and Standardization of 0.1 M Hydrochloric acid (HCl).

  1. In a 1000 mL volumetric flask that has been washed and dried, pour about 100 mL of water.

  2. Add approximately 8.5 mL of Conc.

  3. Mix in another 700 mL of water and set aside to cool to room temperature.

  4. Fill the jar with 1000 mL of water.

  5. Give at least one hour for the solution to settle before continuing with the standardization.

4. How can I become a chemist? 

The course for a chemist is one of the most interesting courses. This includes some specialized subjects like organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, instrumental analysis, calculus, physics and computer science. And if you wish to know more about chemistry as a career option, you can check out the online website of Vedantu where you get all the knowledge about the same. 

5. What are the job opportunities in chemistry? 

If you desire to keep the subject of chemistry as your career field, you have many doors open in front of you. There are a lot of career options in the field of chemistry, some of them are chemical engineers, analytical chemists, biochemists and much more. If you want to know about all of them,  you can check the online website of Vedantu which offers you all the related information.