Synthetic fibres are classified into following 3 types –
We generally don’t put rayon in the category of synthetic fibres as it’s a semi-synthetic fibre. It is prepared from a natural raw material called cellulose by chemical treatment.
1. Nylon – It is a synthetic fibre or synthetic polymer. Its name comes from the fact that 1st it was prepared in Newyork and London. Many types of nylon fibres are available such as nylon 6,6 , nylon 6, nylon 46 etc. Nylon 6,6 was one of the 1st completely synthetic fibre. Its monomer units are adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine. It is used in raincoats, swimwear etc.
Properties of Nylon fibres- These fibres are very strong, elastic, lustrous and lightweight. Nylon is a thermoplastic fibre.
2. Polyester – It is also a synthetic fibre. Polyester polymers generally contain ester group. Its polymer units are linked by ester group.
Properties of polyester fibres- Polyester fibres are strong, lustrous, wrinkle resistant and elastic. It is also a thermoplastic fibre. These fibres are softer than nylon fibres.
It is extremely useful fibre. It can be divided into following 2 subtypes-
a. Terylene – It is a synthetic polyester fibre which is basically made up of terephthalic acid. It is used to make plastic bottles and cloths.
b. PET – PET - It is abbreviation of polyethylene terephthalate. It is mainly used in fabrics and packaging materials, contains etc.
3. Acrylic – Acrylic fibres are synthetic fibres which are made up of monomer unit acrylonitrile. It is also known as polyacrylonitrile. It is used in boots, hats, blankets, roller brushes etc.
Properties of acrylic – It is a wool like fibre but lightweight and stronger than wool. It dries very well. It resists shrinkage and wrinkles. It is resistant to moths and many chemicals also.
1. It is used for making textiles like sarees, shirts, socks etc.
2. It is used in making curtains and tents.
3. It used in making car-seat belts, fishing nets, paint brushes, ropes etc.
4. Nylon is used as plastic for making machine parts.
1. It is used in making sarees, dress material, shirts, trousers, suits etc.
2. It is used for making sail-boats.
3. It is used for making water hoses.
4. It is used for making conveyer belts.
5. It is used in making bottles, jars and utensils.
1. It is used as substitute of wool.
2. It is used for making shawls, sweaters, sportswear.
3. It is used for making carpets.
4. It is used for making lining of boots and gloves.