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Sodium Bisulfate - NaHSO₄

What is Sodium Bisulfate?

Sodium Bisulfate, with the molecular formula \[(NaHSO_{4})\], is the sodium salt of the bisulfate anion. It is an acid kind of salt that is formed by partial neutralization of sulfuric acid by an equivalent of sodium base. It is typically in the form of either sodium hydroxide (lye) or sodium chloride. Sodium bisulfate is produced as a median in the Mannheim process. Mannheim is an industrial process involving the reaction of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid: \[NaCl + H_{2}SO_{4} \rightarrow  HCl + NaHSO_{4}\]. It is highly toxic to certain echinoderms but impartially harmless to most other life forms; so it is used in controlling outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish.


Properties of Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\]

There are two different properties of sodium bisulphate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] 


Physical Properties of Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\]

Sodium bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] is commonly available in both anhydrous (dry) and monohydrate \[(NaHSO_{4}.H_{2}O)\] forms. Anhydrous \[(NaHSO_{4})\] is a shapeless and hygroscopic white powder, having a density of 2.74 g/mL and a melting point of 315 °C. The monohydrate is a white sandy solid having a density of 1.8 g/mL and a melting point of 59 °C. It is considered a dry acid that is suitable for safe shipping and storage as well.


Chemical Properties of Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\]

Sodium bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] is highly water-soluble. It is not a typical neutral salt but chemically an acidic salt, due to the substitution of only one acidic proton of the diprotic sulfuric acid. Aqueous solutions of \[(NaHSO_{4})\] are highly acidic. It reacts powerfully with strong bases and potent oxidizing agents. It is perfectly steady under normal conditions but decomposes upon exposure to water.


Uses of \[(NaHSO_{4})\]

We have listed a few uses of \[(NaHSO_{4})\] sodium bisulfate below:

Sodium bisulfate is often used as a preservative, in meat processing, food additives, drugs, and dietary supplements. Uses of sodium bisulfate are also extended in pH control, household cleaning products, leather tanning, disinfecting, swimming pools, metal cleaning, and many other applications. Sodium bisulfate was once an essential active ingredient in the toilet bowl cleaners Vanish and Sani-Flush, but now both are discontinued.

  1. Sodium bisulfate is used in lowering the pH of water in swimming pools.

  2. Used in metal finishing.

  3. Used in the chicken house to reduce the concentration of Salmonella.

  4. Used as a bleaching agent.

  5. Used as a catalyst.

  6. Used in the manufacturing of paper products.

  7. Used in water treatment products.

  8. Used in paints.

  9. Used in agricultural chemicals.

  10. Used in velvet cloths.


Chemical Reactions of Sodium Bisulfate

The hydrated sodium bisulfate first dehydrates and then separates from the water molecule which is attached to it at 60°C temperature. It is allowed to cool. Heating it to 290 °C produces sodium pyrosulfate which is nothing but an absolute colorless salt:

\[ 2 NaHSO_{4} \rightarrow  Na_{2}S_{2}O_{7} + H_{2}O \]


What is Bisulfate?

Bisulfate is a liquid solution consisting of a white crystalline solid dissolved in water. It is corrosive to metals and tissue. Bisulfate is an ester or salt of sulphuric acid which contains – \[ HSO_{4} \] or the ion \[ HSO_{4} \] –, the monovalent group (which is a modifier) consisting of, containing, or concerned with the group:

– \[ HSO_{4} \] or the ion \[ HSO_{4} \]


Solved Problem

Question: How is Sodium Bisulfate Made?

Solution: Sodium bisulfate is formed or made as a median in the Mannheim process. It is an industrial process involving the reaction of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid:

\[ NaCl + H_{2}SO_{4} \rightarrow  HCl + NaHSO_{4} \]

The liquid sodium bisulfate is sprayed and cooled to help it form a solid bead. The hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in H_{2}O (water) to form hydrochloric acid. Sodium bisulfate if not for economical interest but can be given rise as an outgrowth of the production of many different mineral acids through the reaction of their sodium salts with more sulfuric acid:

\[ NaX + H_{2}SO_{4} \rightarrow  NaHSO_{4} + HX  \]


Question: How do you neutralize Sodium Bisulphate?

Solution: Sodium bisulfate is not very toxic to the environment if in small quantities, though it should be neutralized first before disposal. We can use a base like sodium carbonate or bicarbonate in an aqueous solution.


Studying the Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem

Before you start learning the Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem, you should have a clear understanding of chemical formulas and why you need them. Then, it will be much easier to understand the concept of Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problems. Here are some other tips to use while learning this concept: 

  • While studying the Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem, you should highlight the important points or note them down. These notes will help you summarize a topic, making it easier to revise before the exam. 

  • Read and memorize all the necessary information related to sodium bisulphate,  such as uses, properties, reactions, formulas, and importance of this chemical mixture. 

  • You can use the solved examples from Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem provided by Vedantu to understand the concept more clearly. 

  • You should also learn how sodium bisulphate is formed and what chemicals are used in its formation. It will help you in understanding Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem. 

  • Try to solve different kinds of questions based on Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem for practice to get a good grasp of this concept. 

  • Refer to your textbooks and reference guides to get detailed explanations and solved solutions to complex questions.

  • Use questions from different sample papers and previous year's chemistry question papers to get an idea of the marking distribution of this concept. This way, you will also learn what type of questions, based on Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\], can come in your exam.   


Importance of learning the Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem 

Learning the Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem is very important for all the students of chemistry. This chemical mixture is used in many areas for different purposes. For example, the textile industries use Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] on velvet cloth to create burnout velvet. Besides this, the Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem is one of the most important parts of your academic syllabus. It carries significant weightage in your chemistry exam. So, by learning the concept of Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem, you can score great marks in your tests and exams.


With Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem, you can also understand how this chemical mixture is formed. It will improve your understanding of chemical formulas and make other concepts of chemistry easy to learn. Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem will also help you understand how this chemical mixture is used in various industries for different purposes. That is why it is important to understand the concept of Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem. You can start learning about the properties and uses of sodium bisulphate from Vedantu’s e-learning platform entirely free of cost.

FAQs on Sodium Bisulfate - NaHSO₄

1. Is the use of Sodium Bisulfate in plants safe?

Vinegar is a neutral acid that is completely harmless to plants when diluted in water. Sodium bisulphate should be used to balance the pH of the water for soil cultivation to prevent the over-fertilizing of plants. All the economic pH DOWN products contain potent nitric or phosphoric acid that may raise the level of salt in the soil and burn your plants. Especially seedlings and young plants easily get destroyed from regular watering on them with pH down. Sulfuric, phosphoric, and citric acids seem to work well, and it is advisable to use more than one for better buffering. Since plants need phosphorus anyhow, a phosphoric/citric acid mix can be used.

2. What is the difference between Sodium Hydrogen Sulphite (Sodium Bisulfite) and Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate (Sodium Bisulphate)?

Sodium hydrogen sulfite or “sodium bisulfite” \[(NaHSO_{3})\] is used as a preservative to reduce or prevent microbial spoilage, in food processing as a sanitizing agent for food containers and fermentation equipment, as an antioxidant and inhibitor of enzyme-catalyzed oxidative discoloration and non-enzymic browning, and selective inhibitor of undesirable microorganisms in the fermentation industries. The food additive code of sodium hydrogen sulfite is E 222 (the E number is commonly found on food labels).


Sodium hydrogen sulfate or “sodium bisulfate” \[(NaHSO_{4})\] is used as an acidity regulator. E 514 is the food additive code of sodium hydrogen sulfate. Sodium bisulfate will also control browning. It works by lessening the pH to hamper the polyphenol oxidase enzyme. It lowers pH without a sour taste, so it does not change the flavor of the food.

3. From where can I learn the Sodium Bisulfate NaHSO4 – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem?

You can start learning the Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem from Vedantu’s official site and mobile app, which is available on app stores for absolutely free. We provide you with reliable content that helps you in revision and preparing for your exams. Apart from the Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] – Properties, Uses, Chemical Reactions, and Solved Problem, you can also study other important concepts of chemistry from our learning platform. With Vedantu, you will get a better understanding of topics such as Carbon, Acids, Bases & Salts, etc.

4. What are the uses of Sodium Bisulfate NaHSO4?

Sodium Bisulphate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] can be used in various areas for different purposes. Below are some of the most common uses of sodium bisulphate \[(NaHSO_{4})\].

  • Sodium bisulphate is one of the vital ingredients used to make toilet bowl cleaners. 
  • The Sodium Bisulphate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] is applied to velvet cloth to make burnout velvet, 
  • Sodium bisulfate is mainly used for lowering the pH level of water in a swimming pool.
  • \[(NaHSO_{4})\] is used as an additive in many food items. 
  • Sodium bisulphate has proved to be an effective ingredient in poultry litter treatments to control ammonia.

5. Explain the properties of Sodium Bisulfate.

Here are the properties of Sodium Bisulfate: 

  • The chemical formula of sodium bisulphate is \[(NaHSO_{4})\]. 
  • The molecular weight of Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] is 120.06 g/mol (anhydrous)
  • The density of Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] is 2.742 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
  • Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] have a boiling point and melting point of 315 °C and 150 °C respectively.  
  • Sodium Bisulfate \[(NaHSO_{4})\] has a solid white appearance. 
  • Sodium bisulphate starts decomposing when exposed to water.

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