When phosphorus reacts with halide, it forms phosphorus halides. Halides of phosphorus are of two types: PX3 and PX5. X here is denoted for halogen and it can be fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.
The most common type of phosphorus halide is phosphorus trichloride (PCl3) and phosphorus pentachloride (formula of phosphorus pentachloride - PCl5).
Phosphorus Trichloride PCl3:
Phosphorus trichloride is highly poisonous and is colorless in nature.
The phosphorus trichloride formula (chemical) is PCl3.
This compound exhibits sp3 hybridization and is triangular pyramidal in shape.
Phosphorus Trichloride Structure:
It consists of three bonded chlorine atoms to phosphorus and one lone pair.
Phosphorus in the structure of PCl3 shows sp3 hybridization. These three sp3 hybridized orbits of phosphorus overlap with the p orbital of each chlorine atom thus forming a three-sigma P-Cl bond.
The fourth sp3 hybridized orbital of phosphorus contains a lone pair.
[Image will be Uploaded Soon]
Preparation of Phosphorus Trichloride:
Phosphorus trichloride is formed when dry chlorine is passed over warmed white phosphorus.
P4 + 6Cl2 → 4PCl3
Phosphorus trichloride is produced when thionyl chloride reacts with white phosphorus.
P + 8SOCl2 → 4PCl3 + 4SO2 + 2S2Cl2
Hydrolysis of phosphorus trichloride in the presence of moisture.
PCl3 + 3H2O → H3PO3 + 3HCl
To produce its chloro-derivatives, it reacts with organic compounds containing the OH group.
3C2H5OH + PCl3 → 3C2H5Cl + H3PO3
It is a yellowish-white powder in colour with a pungent smell.
It is very sensitive to water.
It is soluble in carbon tetrachloride, benzene, diethyl ether, and carbon disulfide.
The phosphorus pentachloride formula is PCl5
Structure of Phosphorus Pentachloride:
Phosphorus pentachloride shape is trigonal bipyramidal (in liquid and gaseous form).
There are two axial bonds and three equatorial bonds in the structure of phosphorus pentachloride PCl5. There is more repulsion in axial bonds as compared to equatorial bonds. So, axial bonds are longer than the equatorial bonds in the structure.
[Image will be Uploaded Soon]
Note: Phosphorus pentachloride exists in ionic form in solid-state. Its ionic form consists of [PCl4]+[PCl6]-. The cation [PCl4]+ is tetrahedral while [PCl6]- is octahedral in shape.
Phosphorus pentachloride is formed when white phosphorus reacts with an excess of dry chlorine.
P4 + 10Cl2 → 4PCl5
By the reaction of SO2Cl2 and phosphorus, we can also produce it.
P4 + 10SO2Cl2 → 4PCl5 + 10SO2
Phosphorus pentachloride hydrolyzes into POCl3 in the presence of moist air. Over a period of time, this compound converts to phosphoric acid.
PCl5 + H2O → POCl3 + 2HCl
POCl3 + 3H2O → H3PO4 + 3HCl
It sublimates and further disintegrates into phosphorus trichloride as we heat it.
PCl5 → PCl3 + Cl2
Under the influence of heat, it reacts with finely partitioned metals to produce metal chlorides.
2Ag + PCl5 → 2AgCl + PCl3
It reacts and produces its 'chloro' subordinates with natural compounds containing-OH group.
C2H5OH + PCl5 → C2H5Cl + POCl3 + HCl
Uses of Phosphorus Halides:
It is used as an agent for chlorinating.
It is used as an intermediate in the manufacturing of phosphorus acid, chloro-anhydrides, and phosphoric acid derivatives.
It is used for the manufacturing of organophosphate pesticides.
It is used in water treatments and paint additives.