Dhristi JEE 2022-24

What is Phenyl and Its Properties?

The name "phenyl" is taken from the French word phényl, which is derived from the Greek word phaino, which means "light," because the earliest phenyl compounds were created as a result of the building and refining of various gasses used for lighting.


Phenyl Groups

The phenyl group or phenyl ring is a cyclic group of atoms with the formula (C6H5) in organic chemistry. another object or combination. which can serve as a working group. Six carbon atoms are grouped in a hexagonal planar ring in phenyl groups, five of which are bound to separate hydrogen atoms. The last carbon atom is bound in place. Inorganic chemicals, phenyl groups are common. Phenyl groups have a chemical odour and have the same bond length between carbon atoms in the ring, even though they are often expressed in different double-bonded bonds.


The ‘phenyl group’ is usually similar to (C6H5) and is defined by the letter Ph or, archaically, the symbol. Benzene is often referred to as PhH. Phenyl groups usually adhere to other atoms or groups. Three phenyl groups are connected to the same carbon center in triphenylmethane Ph3CH e.g. most, if not all, phenyl compounds do not have the word ‘phenyl’ attached to them. For example, (C6H5Cl) found in chloro is commonly referred to as chlorobenzene, but can also be called phenyl chloride. Individual phenyl groups are found in certain (and rare) conditions: phenyl anion (C6H5), phenyl cation (C6H5+), and phenyl radical (C6H5).


Benzene (C6H6) extracts are known as phenyl compounds. In terms of electrical properties, the phenyl group is similar to the vinyl group. It is known as a deterrent group for importation due to the increased electronegativity of the sp2 carbon atoms and the ability of its system to contribute to electron density when bonding is required as a resonance (+M) (-I) contribution group. The hydrophobic group is phenyl. Phenyl groups can withstand oxidation and reduction in rare cases. Compared to similar binding in aliphatic (non-fragrant) groups, phenyl groups (like other fragrant compounds) have a higher density. The unusual structures of orbitals in molecular aromatics cause this increased stability.


Phenyl groups are often introduced to reagents that act as providers of phenyl anion or phenyl cation. Phenyl lithium(C6H5Li) and phenylmagnesium bromide are two examples of reagents (C6H5MgBr).


Phenyl Grouped Compounds (Representative Compounds)

Atorvastatin (Lipitor) is a popular drug that has two groups of phenyl and one group of p-fluorophenyl. It helps people with hypercholesterolemia to lower their cholesterol levels.


Another popular drug, fexofenadine (Allegra, Telfast), contains both diphenyl methyl groups and p-phenylene (C6H4). Antihistamine is used to help people with food allergies.


Phenyl groups have six carbon atoms in a hexagonal planar structure, of which five are bonded to hydrogen atoms. They are chemically aromatic and have equal bond lengths between carbon atoms in the ring. It is poorly soluble in water.


Difference between Benzene and Phenyle

Benzene (C6H6)

Phenyle (C6H5)

Liquid hydrocarbon is present in petroleum.

It is a group derived from Benzene and can be combined with other molecules.

It is stable.

It is not stable.

Six Hydrogen atoms.

Five hydrogen atoms.


Structure


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Uses

  • It is used as a disinfectant in many places like home schools, hotels, stores, hospitals, offices, etc.

  • It is used to remove odors and kill microorganisms.

  • It is also used as an antioxidant, analgesic, choleretic, etc.

  • Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol (PEA) can also be used in perfume companies.


Properties of Phenyl

(C6H5)

Phenyl

Molecular Weight

77.1g/mol

Density

1.248 g/mL at 25 °C

Colour

White

Melting point

−30 °C

Boiling Point

232.2 °C


The reaction involved in the preparation of Phenyl:


Phenol reacts with bromine and forms a Bromo substituted phenol and hydrogen bromide. 


\[2C_{6}H_{5}OH + 5Br_{2}  \rightarrow  2C_{6}H_{2}Br_{2}OH + 6HBr\]


Phenyl making raw materials: Raw materials that are generally used in the manufacture of phenyl are Rosin, pale yellow to deep brown (black type is generally not suitable), Caustic soda, Castor oil, Light creosote oil containing 25 to 30 % carbolic acid.


Types of Phenyl 

Phenyl comes in a variety of forms.

  1. Green Phenyl is a nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly phenyl that is used to remove insects from homes. This phenyl is used in removing insects from homes and is nontoxic, biodegradable, and environment-friendly.

  2. Black Phenyl is a strong disinfectant that is often black or dark brown in appearance. It acts as a powerful disinfectant and is usually in black or dark brown color. (Best Phenyl).

  3. White Phenyl: It usually has a white or milky hue to it. This disinfectant usually aids in the removal of odors as well as the death of microorganisms. 


Uses of Phenyl

  1. The most common amino acid is phenylalanine. Because of its anti-depressant and antidepressant properties, it can be used as a dietary supplement.

  2. Two groups of phenyl from biphenyl. Two rings are rarely coplanar. As a mixture of diphenyl ether and biphenyl, biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer agent.

  3. The solvent is chlorobenzene (or phenyl chloride). Herbicides, dyestuffs, and rubber are all used as intermediate substances.

  4. Many chemical substances, both natural and man-made, form phenyl groups. Among the natural compounds, the amino acid phenylalanine, which contains the phenyl group, is the most abundant. Phenyl rings can be found in a variety of medicines and impurities. One of the basic chemicals that contain phenyl is phenol (C6H5OH).

  5. It is now used in a variety of institutional and domestic disinfectants and other phenols.

  6. It helps to remove odours and promote sanitation.

  7. In public places such as schools, hotels, markets, and offices, it can be used as a disinfectant.

  8. It has pharmacological effects and can be used as an antioxidant, analgesic, and choleretic, among other things.


Fun Facts About Phenyl

  1. Phenyl groups are connected to benzene and are sometimes called benzene rings. Six carbon atoms are grouped in a hexagonal planar ring in phenyl groups, five of which are bound to separate hydrogen atoms. The last carbon atom is bound in place.

  2. The names phenyl and phenol are often interchangeable. The basic difference between phenol and phenyl is that phenol contains one oxygen atom, whereas phenyl does not contain any oxygen atoms. The distinction between phenyl and phenol is that phenyl has an unstable benzene ring without the presence of a hydrogen atom. It is very effective. Phenol, on the other hand, is basic fragrant alcohol, with the formula (C6H5OH) and a stable chemical. It does not work well and has a stable chemical structure.

  3. Many chemical substances, both natural and synthetic, comprise phenyl groups. Among the natural compounds, the amino acid phenylalanine, which contains the phenyl group, is the most abundant.


Conclusion

This is all about the phenyl group of compounds, the structure of the phenyl group, and its uses. Focus on the structure and the chemical properties of this group of compounds and grab hold of the concept.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What happens when we smell concentrated phenyl or drink it directly?

Direct Contact can irritate and burn the skin and eyes. High exposure to Phenyl Acetonitrile can cause vomiting, weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting. Breathing Phenyl Acetonitrile can cause irritation in the nose, throat, and lungs causing coughing or shortness of breath.  


Never think of drinking phenyl as you will either die a painful death or your stomach pumped within 15 minutes of drinking the stuff, and maybe come away with nothing worse than severe burns inside the body. 


Caution:

  1. Store phenyl in a cool, dry, ventilated area away from sources of heat or direct ignition. 

  2. Store it separately from reactive or combustible materials and also out of direct sunlight.

2. Are phenyl and phenol the same?

Phenyl and phenol are often confusing terms. The major difference between phenol and phenyl is that phenol is composed of an oxygen atom whereas phenyl has no oxygen atoms attached to it.


Difference between Phenyl and Phenol:

  • Phenyl is a benzene ring lacking a Hydrogen atom and is an unstable compound.

  • It is highly reactive. On the other hand, Phenol is the simplest aromatic alcohol having the formula C6H5OH and is a stable compound. It is less reactive and has a stable structure.

3. Phenyl groups readily undergo oxidation or reduction? Comment.

Phenyl groups tend to resist oxidation and reduction. Phenyl groups have relatively higher stability than aliphatic (non-aromatic) groups.

4. Is consuming phenyl harmful for humans ?

Phenyl is quite toxic and could lead to fatal problems if consumed accidentally by humans.

5. What is the purpose of phenyl ?

Phenyl is a strong deodorant and germicide that is often used for sanitary purposes in places like hospitals, nursing homes, sewers, lavatories, toilets, and cowsheds.

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