Element-Manganese (Mn)

Manganese is a mineral element which is essential for the human body. We find manganese in many foods such as leafy green vegetables, tea, whole grains, legumes, nuts etc. Manganese deficiency in our body can cause impaired growth, skeletal abnormalities etc. let’s know more about manganese. 

What is Manganese? 

Manganese is a crystalline element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. Its symbol Mn has come from Latin word magnes which means magnet. We don’t get manganese as a free element in nature, generally it is available in the form of minerals such pyrolusite (MnO2). 

In the 18th century, Swedish-German chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele used pyrolusite to produce chlorine, at that time he was told pyrolusite contained a new element, but he was not able to isolate it. Later, Swedish Chemist Johan Gottlieb Gahn isolated manganese metal in 1774. He isolated manganese by heating pyrolusite which contains manganese dioxide (MnO2) in presence of charcoal. Still most of the manganese is obtained by pyrolusite only. Generally it is burned in a furnace with powdered Al and then electrolyzed. 

Manganese is a solid metal with crystal structure. In the periodic table it is placed in group 7 and period 4. It is a d-block element which means it is a transition element. 

Properties of Manganese -

Manganese symbol 

Mn

Atomic number of manganese 

25

Atomic mass of manganese (Mn)

54.938

Electronic configuration of manganese 

[Ar] 3d54s2

Density 

7.3 g cm-3

Melting Point 

1246℃

Boiling Point 

2061℃

Oxidation states 

-3,-2,-1,0,+1,+2,+3,+4,+5,+6,+7

Ionization energy 

1st : 717.3 kJ/mol

2nd : 1509.0 kJ/mol

3rd : 3248 kJ/mol

Magnetic ordering 

Paramagnetic 

Isotopes 

52Mn, 53Mn, 54Mn

 

Manganese is a silvery grey metal that looks like iron. it is hard but brittle. It gets oxidized easily. 

Occurrence of Manganese 

It comprises 0.1% of the earth’s crust. Manganese occur mainly as Pyrolusite, Braunite, Psilomelane and Rhodochrosite. About 80% of the known world manganese deposits are in South Africa, other important manganese deposits are in Ukraine, Australia, India, China, Gabon and Brazil. 

Uses of Manganese 

Manganese is used in numerous fields and in numerous ways. Even it is an essential mineral for our body. We have listed few uses of manganese below – 

  1. Manganese shows properties such as sulfur – fixing, deoxidizing and alloying properties that’s why it is essential to iron and steel production. 

  2. It is used in aluminium alloys as aluminium with manganese is resistant to corrosion. 

  3. It is used to reduce engine knocking. 

  4. It is used as a reagent for oxidation of Benzylic alcohols. 

  5. It is used in the manufacture of oxygen and chlorine. 

  6. It is used in drying black paints. 

  7. It is a constituent of natural numbers. 

  8. It is used in dry cell batteries and alkaline batteries. 

  9. In some places it is used in coins as well. 

  10. It is used as pigment for coloring ceramics and glass. 

  11. It is used as an activator in red-emitting phosphor. 

  12. It is an essential element for the human body as it helps in metabolism and essential for use of vitamins by our body. 

Excessive intake of manganese can be lethal and can cause Parkinson’s disease.