What is Glass?
Glass is a material that softens when heated and can be formed into the desired shape. Glass is used to make laboratory equipment, marbles, paperweights, mirrors, decorative items, windows, and television screens. Glass is a transparent material that takes on different colours when electrically charged ions are evenly distributed. Let's see how the glass is formed into a jet shape.
Aim of the Experiment
To learn the fundamentals of drawing a glass jet and glass rods with a simple process.
Materials Required for Drawing Glass Jet and Rod
15 cm long soda-glass tube
15 cm long soda-glass rod
20-25 cm long glass tube
How To Draw A Jet?
Choose a glass tube with the appropriate diameter for drawing a jet.
Using a triangular file, cut the glass tube to the desired length.
Heat the tube by holding it at both ends in the hottest part of the Bunsen burner flame.
Rotate the tube gently until the portion in contact with the flame becomes red hot and softens.
Remove the glass tube from the flame and slowly and smoothly pull the ends apart until it becomes narrow in the middle and then stretches into a fine jet.
Cut the tube in the middle, then sandpaper and fire polish the ends until they are smooth.
Procedure for Glass Rod Drawing
Place the rod or glass tube on the table.
Mark the glass tube or rod with triangular file keeping.
Keep the triangular file perpendicular to the rod or tube and pull it towards you so that a single deep scratch is made.
Hold the glass rod or tube with the help of your thumbs.
Now apply pressure in the direction away from you and try breaking the glass rod or tube.
If the glass rod or tube does not break, use the triangular file to make a deeper scratch on the previous mark.
Trim any jagged edges with a wire gauge if you see them.
To get a good finish, gently hold the cut edge of the glass rod or tube in the flame.
Hold the edge of the glass rod or tube in the bunsen burner and rotate it back and forth until both ends have a good finish (smooth and round).
Precautions to be Taken While Drawing Glass Rod and Glass Jet
Pull the softened part of the glass tube gently until it is evenly thin.
Touching the red hot portion of the tube will be too hot and may cause injury.
In a single stroke/attempt, try to make a single deep scratch of the required length.
Be cautious during the filing process and when breaking the glass tube/rod.
To achieve optimal balance, keep your face away from the glass tube/rod and hold it away with a piece of cloth.
1. Why is a Glass Tube Rotated While Heating in a Burner?
Ans: To make a single deep scratch at the desired length, rotate the glass tube with one stroke of the file. This is done to ensure that all sides are properly heated due to uneven thermal expansion, which prevents cracking. It should be rotated in this order to ensure even heating. Never forcefully bend the glass tube. You risk breaking the tubing if you do so. Finally, do not heat the end for an extended period of time. Because it may seal the end or narrow it, the glass tube is rotated while heating in a burner.
2. What is the temperature that makes a glass break?
Ans: A glass is unaffected by cold or warm temperatures. When the temperature rises above 300 degrees Fahrenheit, the excessive thermal variation causes the glass to shatter. Because glass is a poor conductor of heat, rapid temperature changes cause stress and fractures on the glass, resulting in shattering or breaking. When placed at an overheated temperature of 500 degrees, the glass transforms from a solid to a plastic state.
At room temperature, glass tubes are very brittle and easily break. However, one can conclude that an amorphous crystalline solid, such as glass, has special properties that allow it to bend when subjected to intense heat. The bending of a glass tube experiment shows that materials like glass have a wide range of applications, owing to their malleability and ability to be shaped to the desired orientation when properly heated.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Jet propulsion works on the principle of:
a) Newton’s first law
b) Newton’s second law
c) Newton’s third law
d) Thermodynamic properties
2. A jet strikes a curved plate at its
d) Does not strike
3. Jet propulsion of ship is less efficient than screw propeller due to
c) Frictional losses
d) Wear and tear
FAQs on Glasses Drawing
1. Why is glass important? How is it used?
Glass has many applications and is used in almost every field nowadays. It is most commonly used in industries, laboratories, and, most importantly, schools for educational purposes. Glass is seen everywhere nowadays, and the main reason for this is that it has many applications, so it is present in every field.
Nowadays, glass is mostly seen in educational settings such as labs (chemistry labs, biology labs). As a result, glass is commonly seen in industrial fields. Because it manufactures a wide range of glasses in terms of colour, type, volume, and so on, Glasses are also used in the automobile industry because we mostly see mobiles, cars, bikes, and trucks nowadays. Actually, glass is something that is used in almost every aspect.
2. What type of glass are glass figurines made out of?
Artisan glass figurines are made from the same glass mix as blown glass and are modelled with pliers and a small blowtorch to keep the glass hot and soft. Coloured glass employs special mineral mixes to colourize the glass, after which the various elements are welded together while the glass is at the proper temperature. An artisan needs a lot of practice to know when the glass is at the right temperature to weld without losing its shape.
3. Why are windows made out of glass?
Basically, glass is the least expensive material that allows light to pass through easily. A window's basic function is to allow light into a building, and because cost is a major factor in building materials, glass is the best choice. Other materials that could work include quartz crystal (which is much more expensive and must be made much thicker) and plastics (which are also inexpensive but do not transmit light as well). Because glass was the only material used for windows for centuries, there has been a buildup of industry and technology around it as the window material of choice. So, even though there are other window material options, there are now economies of scale.