What do you know about organic compounds? If we talk about in Chemistry terms, Organic compounds can be defined as any type of chemical compounds in which atoms of carbon, that could be one or more than one, are covalently linked to the other elements’ atoms. In very simple terms you can say that organic compounds are simply any chemical compounds that have carbon but it doesn’t mean that every carbon-containing compound can be known as organic, for e.g. cyanides, carbonates and carbides. The best example of the simplest organic compound is Methane. Few examples of Organic compounds are cyclohexane, ethyne, ethane and ethane.
Organic Compounds can be classified on two bases. Firstly we will talk about organic compounds which are based on “Structure” and secondly, we will discuss the organic compounds which are based on “Function”. Now we will study these classifications of organic compounds in detail.
(i) Acyclic or open chain compounds
Acyclic compounds are just opposite to cyclic compounds because their molecules don’t form any ring. It is called open chain compounds because they have a linear structure. The best examples of these compounds are acyclic aliphatic compounds and alkanes. Open-chain compounds can be understood by straight-chain compounds and branched-chain compounds. In the straight-chain compounds don’t have any side chains but branched-chain compounds’ atoms have the straight chain and one or more than one side chains are attached to it.
Cyclic or closed-chain compounds always have a prior place in human being’s day to day life as human encounters these compounds on a daily basis. They are also categorized into two divisions. The first division is about “Heterocyclic” and second division is about “Homocyclic”. Now we will discuss these categories one by one.
Heterocyclic compounds are a kind of cyclic compounds in which the ring structure exists. We can understand these compounds in very simple definition as it is like of any other dominant branch of organic compounds in which two or more than two atoms join in the ring shape in their molecules. Although they have atoms of carbon, it must be noticed that at least one atom of another element also exists. The very familiar examples of these compounds are synthetic dyes, nucleic acids and most of the drugs.
If we talk about organic chemistry Homocyclic compounds are the type of cyclic compounds, unlike heterocyclic, in which the ring structure is formed by the atoms. This ring structure is made up of the same elements’ atoms and this element is the carbon. This is called as Carbocyclic compounds. No element other than carbon can exist in this compound. Although in inorganic chemistry homocyclic compounds have ring structures which have been formed by diff-diff elements’ atom like boron, sulphur, phosphorous and so on. The best examples of this compound are naphthalene, tetracene, benzene and so on.
Heterocyclic compounds are divided into two broad categories which are named as Alicyclic heterocyclic compounds and Aromatic heterocyclic compounds. Now, we will discuss these categories in brief.
Homocyclic or carbocyclic compounds are basically divided into two compounds. The first compound is known as Alicyclic compound and second is known as Aromatic compound. Now we will discuss these compounds in detail.
Aromatic compounds have a distinctive stability and this is why they are referred to as aromaticity which is majorly concerned with odour. Now we will discuss the classification of these compounds which are basically Benzenoid Aromatic Compounds and Non-Benzenoid Aromatic compounds. Further, we will discuss them in detail.
|CLASS||FUNCTIONAL GROUP||CLASS||FUNCTIONAL GROUP|
|Amides (Alkanamides)||Amid||Isocyanides||– N C (Isocyano)|
|Alcohols (Alkanols)||–OH (Hydroxy)||Olefins/Alkenes (ene)|
|Acetylenes/Alkynes (yne)||Nitro compounds (Nitroalkanes)||(Nitro) ¯|
|Acid anhydrides(Alkanoic anhydrides)||(Anhydride)||Esters (Alkylalkanoates)||(Ester)|
|Aldehydes (Alkanals)||(Aldehydic)||Alkyl Halides|
|Acid halides (Alkanoyl halids)||(Acylhalide)||Cyanides/Nitriles (Alkanenitrile)||(Cyano)|
|Ethers (Alkoxyalkanes)||Carboxylic acid(Alkanoic acid)||(Carboxyl)|