Barium Chloride

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What is Barium Chloride BaCl₂?

Barium Chloride (BaCl₂) is an inorganic salt that is composed of Barium cations (Ba⁺) and Chloride anions (Cl⁻). It is also named Barium dichloride or Barium Muriate. It is a white solid chemical compound which is soluble in water, it is hygroscopic, and provides a frail yellow-green colour when put to a flame. BaCl₂ is the chemical formula of Barium Chloride. Barium salts are widely used in the industry. The sulfate is applied in white paints, especially for external use. Barium chloride is toxic in nature.


Structure of Barium Chloride BaCl₂ 

The chemical formula of Barium Chloride is BaCl₂, and the molar mass of Barium Chloride is 208.23 g mol⁻¹. This salt is formed by one Barium cation (Ba²⁺) and one Chloride anion (Cl⁻). The crystals can be cubic fluorite or orthorhombic. Its chemical structure can be formulated as below, in the common representations applied for organic molecules. 

Cl⁻                    Cl⁻ 

Ba²⁺ 

Structure of Barium Chloride


Preparation of Barium Chloride

Hydrochloric acid (concentrated) 180 ml is diluted with 440 ml of water and emptied in a porcelain evaporating dish. The solid Barium Carbonate in tiny portions is added and mixed after. If Barium Carbonate is added too quickly, the mixture will churn out of the dish. After Barium Carbonate is added, and the solution becomes neutral to litmus, the mixture is ignited to boiling. If Barium Carbonate comprises iron as an impurity, it can be excluded by adding 3g of Barium Peroxide and boiling the solution gently for 5 minutes. The Barium Chloride hot solution is diluted to 600 ml and filtered without suction to a 600 ml beaker, keeping both the beaker and the funnel closed to prevent the solution from crystallizing and cooling untimely. 10 ml of diluted Hydrochloric acid is added to the filtrate, to sustain the acidic medium. After that, the liquid is discharged into the crystallizing dish and left to stand open until a good number of crystals is achieved. The obtained crystals are emptied and cleaned with a small amount of distilled water. Finally, Barium Chloride is entirely wilted in the desiccator at room temperature.

                                      BaCo₃ + 2HCl⟶ BaCl₂ + CO₂ + H₂O

Barium Sulfate at high temperature,

                                   BaSO4 + 4C → BaS + 4CO


Properties of Barium Chloride BaCl₂

Barium Chloride is dispersible in water. It is identified to separate into chloride anions and barium cations when it is dissolved. At a temperature of 20℃, the solubility of Barium Chloride in water is roughly equal to 358 grams per liter. However, the solubility of this mixture in water is temperature-dependent. At 100℃, barium chloride solubility in water is equivalent to 594 grams per liter. This compound is also dissolvable in methanol but not soluble in ethanol. Anhydrous BaCl₂ crystallizes in an orthogonal crystal formation. However, the dihydrate formation of Barium Chloride is identified to have a monoclinic crystal structure.

Barium Chloride

BaCl₂

Molecular Mass of Barium Chloride

208.23 g/mol (anhydrous)

Appearance

White solid

Density of Barium Chloride

3.856 g/cm3 (anhydrous)  

Melting Point of Barium Chloride

962 °C

Boiling Point of Barium Chloride

1,560 °C

Solubility in water

31.2 g/100 mL (0 °C)

35.8 g/100 mL (20 °C)

59.4 g/100 mL (100 °C)

Density 

3.856 g/cm3 (anhydrous)

3.0979 g/cm3 (dihydrate) 

Molar Mass of Barium Chloride

208.23 g/mol (anhydrous)

244.26 g/mol (dihydrate)

Magnetic Susceptibility (χ)

-72.6 x 10−6 cm3/mol


Uses of Barium Chloride BaCl₂

  • It is used in wastewater treatment.

  • It is used in the making of oil lubricants, PVC stabilizers, barium chromate, and barium fluoride.

  • It is used in the purification of brine (saline) solution in caustic chlorine plants. 

  • It is used as a test for sulfate ion.

  • It is used in the purification of the manufacture of heat treatment salts. 

  • It is used in the case hardening of steel.

  • It is used in the production of pigments.

  • It is used in the manufacture of different barium salts. 

  • It is used used in fireworks to give a bright green colour.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. Is Barium Chloride Lethal or Toxic?

Ans. Yes, like most Barium salts BaCl₂ is also toxic. The soluble compounds of Barium and Ba+2 ion, mainly nitrate, chloride, hydroxide are lethal to humans. It causes irritation to the eye, skin, and mucous membrane. The inhalation or ingestion of Barium Chloride can also be very deadly. Barium Chloride negatively affects the cardiovascular system, the central nervous system, and the kidneys. It is also toxic to aquatic life. The antidote for poison caused by BaCl₂ is the magnesium or sodium sulfate.

Q2. What is Barium Chloride Dihydrate?

Ans. Barium Chloride Dihydrate is an optimal source of barium for high purity constructions and methods in the optical, electronic, and pharmaceutical industries. Due to its solubility, Barium Chloride Dihydrate is an ideal source of barium, primarily when the pH of the solution is not altered. Barium Chloride Dihydrate is generally used for the production of Barium Titanate by the method of oxalate in rendering special glass and in the manufacture of pharmaceutical intermediates. It is also used in wastewater treatment for the sulfate ion efficient extraction.