Revision Notes for CBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 (Excretory Products and their Elimination) - Free PDF Download
Our carefully planned and organized Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 notes will help students thoroughly understand each mechanism present in the NCERT curriculum. Highly experienced teachers prepare these Chapter 19 Class 11 Biology notes in providing quality education to students. They will surely be able to excel in their biology examinations with the guidance of these Biology Class 11 Chapter 19 notes.
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7. What is the correct sequence of processes involved in urine formation?
Ans. Three processes involved in urine formation are: glomerular filtration, reabsorption and secretion. Filtration of blood by the glomerulus is called glomerular filtration, absorption of selected materials from the filtrate into the blood of the peritubular capillaries or vasa recta is called reabsorption and excretion of additional wastes from the bloodstream into the filtrate is called secretion.
Ans. Sebaceous glands are involved in the removal of substances, such as squalene, cholesterol, triglycerides, wax, and esters via sebum that provides a greasy covering to the skin.
10. Where does the selective reabsorption of glomerular filtrate take place?
Ans. Selective reabsorption involves the reuptake of useful substances from the filtrate and occurs in the convoluted tubules (proximal and distal). The tubular epithelial cells in different segments of nephron perform this either by active or passive mechanisms.
11. Mention the substances that exit from the tubules in order to maintain a concentration gradient in the medullary interstitium.
Ans. The concentration gradient in medullary interstitium is established primarily by renal tubules of loop of Henle and the blood vessels surrounding them (vasa recta) in a process called counter current exchange. The substances that exit from tubules for maintenance of such gradients are mainly sodium chloride (NaCl), water and urea (containing H+, K+ and NH3).
PDF Summary - Class 11 Biology Excretory Products and their Elimination (Chapter 19)
Various harmful substances are formed in the body as a result of different metabolic reactions. It contains urea, uric acid, ammonia, carbon dioxide, water, and ions, among other things.
The three major types of nitrogenous wastes found in higher animals are Urea, ammonia, and uric acid. Ammonia is one of the most dangerous nitrogenous waste out of these.
Ammonotelic animals are those that expel ammonia as nitrogenous waste, such as most bony fishes and aquatic amphibians. Ammonia is excreted through diffusion. Ureotelic organisms are those that excrete urea as nitrogenous waste. Mammalian, amphibian, and other ureotelic organisms are examples.
Uricotelic organisms are those that excrete uric acid as nitrogenous waste, such as reptiles and birds.
Excretory Organs Are Found In A Wide Range Of Organisms
The excretory structures of different organisms differ. For excretion, amoeba and paramecium have contractile vacuoles. In sponges, the excretory system is known as the canal system. Sponges excrete through a canal system. The excretory function of coelenteron is found in Hydra. Platyhelminthes contain flame cells. Annelids, such as earthworms, contain nephridia. Prawns have excretory glands that are green in color. In insects, malpighian tubules form the excretory system.
The Excretory System Of Humans
The human excretory system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra.
The kidneys are bean-shaped and are located in the abdominal cavity. The right kidney is slightly lower in the body than the left kidney. The inner surface of the kidney is concave, while the outer surface is convex. Hilum is a notch that can be found near the center of the inner concave surface of the kidney. The ureter, blood vessels, and nerves all enter through the hilum. The renal pelvis is a funnel-shaped space inside the hilum with projections known as calyces. The kidneys are divided into two sections: the outer and inner kidneys. The outer part of the kidney is called the cortex, and the inner part is known as medulla. The medulla is divided into medullary pyramids, which are conical masses. The column of Bertini is an extension of the renal cortex that separates the pyramids.
Labeled Diagram of Human Excretory System
The structural and functional unit of the kidneys is the nephron. Two major parts of the nephron are the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule.
A tuft of capillaries forms glomerulus. The afferent arteriole transports blood into the glomerulus, while the afferent arteriole transports blood out of the glomerulus. Bowman's capsule is a cup-shaped structure that holds Glomerulus together. Bowman's capsule, along with the glomerulus, is referred to as the renal corpuscles or Malpighian body.
Labeled Diagram of Nephron of Human Kidney
The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is a highly coiled structure that is an extended tubular structure of the Malpighian body. Henle's loop is the next section of the tubule. Henle's loop is made up of two limbs, one is an ascending limb and the other one is a descending limb. The ascending limb extends into a distal convoluted tubule (DCT). The DCT then connects to the collecting duct.
There are two main types of nephrons which are - Cortical nephrons and medullary nephrons.
Cortical Nephrons: Cortical nephrons are formed when only a small portion of their loop of Henle is found in medulla because of its short length.
Medullary Nephrons: Medullary nephrons are formed when the loop of Henle becomes long and spreads into the medulla.
The three major steps in the production of urine are glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and secretion.
Glomerular Filtration: When blood enters the glomerulus via an afferent arteriole, glomerular filtration begins. Water and nitrogenous waste enter the glomerulus and blood cells, while proteins exit through the efferent arteriole. The kidney filters approximately 1100 ml to 1200 ml of blood per minute on average. The glomerular capillary blood pressure causes blood to filter through three different layers. The first layer is the endothelium, which surrounds the glomerular blood vessels. The second layer is Bowman's capsule epithelium, with a basement membrane separating the two. Podocytes are the epithelial cells of the Bowman's capsule that are arranged in an intricate pattern to leave some minute spaces known as slit pores or filtration slits. The amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys per minute is referred to as the glomerular filtration rate.
Labeled Diagram Of Steps Involved In Formation Of Urine
Tubular reabsorption: Tubular reabsorption is the process of absorbing necessary molecules like glucose, amino acids, etc or ions like sodium ions, etc. Some substances are absorbed actively, while others are absorbed passively. Glucose and amino acids are actively absorbed, whereas water is passively absorbed.
Urine Secretion: The final step in the formation of urine is secretion. Potassium ions, hydrogen ions, and ammonia are released to maintain the ionic and acid balance of the body fluids.
Functions Of Tubules
Proximal Convoluted Tubules (PCT): Simple cuboidal brush border epithelium lines the proximal convoluted tubules (PCT). Such epithelium provides a larger surface area for reabsorption. In PCT, the majority of the electrolytes and water are reabsorbed. It contributes to the maintenance of the pH and ionic balance of body fluids through the secretion of hydrogen ions, potassium ions, and ammonium ions into the filtrate.
Henle’s Loop: Henle's loop is very helpful in maintaining the fluid's osmolarity. In the ascending limb, there is very little reabsorption. It is water-impermeable but electrolyte-permeable. The descending limb absorbs the majority of the water, concentrating the filtrate. The descending limb is nearly impermeable to all electrolytes. As a result, different parts of Henle's loop absorb differently.
Functions Of Tubules Of Nephron
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT): To maintain the fluid's ionic balance, the distal convoluted tubule absorbs water, sodium ions, and bicarbonate ions while excreting potassium ions and hydrogen ions.
Collecting Ducts: The collecting duct reabsorbs a large amount of water to concentrate the urine. The collecting duct also secretes hydrogen ions and potassium ions. It keeps the blood's ionic balance and pH stable.
Regulation Of Kidney Function
The hormones released by hypothalamus, juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA), and heart are involved in kidney regulation. Any change in blood volume or ionic balance activates the body's osmoreceptors. Due to this, the hypothalamus produces an antidiuretic hormone (ADH)/ vasopressin. This aids in water reabsorption from the tubules. This increases blood volume and, via a negative feedback mechanism, turns off the osmoreceptors.
During a drop in glomerular blood pressure, the juxtaglomerular apparatus is activated. An enzyme called Renin is released by Juxtaglomerular cells that converts angiotensinogen in the blood to angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II. Because angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, it raises glomerular blood pressure. Angiotensin II also stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone, which increases sodium ion and water reabsorption from the distal tubules. This procedure is known as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) regulates kidney functions
A polypeptide hormone called atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is produced by the heart which acts as a vasodilator and thus lowers the blood pressure. It functions as a negative feedback mechanism for the renin-angiotensin system.
Micturition: Micturition is the process of excretion or release of urine outside from the body. It is controlled by the CNS via a variety of neural mechanisms.
Other Organs in Excretion: The lungs, kidneys, liver, and skin work together to eliminate wastes such as carbon dioxide, toxic substances, urea, and so on.
Excretory System Dysfunctions:
Uremia: It is the accumulation of urea in the blood as a result of kidney failure.
Acute renal failure: It occurs when one or both the kidneys fail to filtrate the urine and are unable to function for a variety of reasons.
Renal calculi: Insoluble kidney stones caused by the accumulation of insoluble crystals such as oxalates.
Glomerulonephritis: It is an inflammation of the Glomerulus.
In cases of kidney failure, hemodialysis can be used to remove excess urea from the blood. Blood is removed from the body via cellophane tubules and dialyzed against an isotonic liquid to remove wastes before being pumped back into the body.
Students can study sitting from anywhere with the help of our notes of Ch 19 Bio Class 11, which are available to be downloaded in PDF Format. It makes learning highly flexible for students to access these notes even without an internet connection and on any device. Students who are more comfortable studying from a hard copy can print out these Class 11 Biology Ch 19 notes as per their convenience.
Overview of Class 11 Excretory Products and Their Elimination Notes
The notes of Chapter 19 Biology Class 11 comprise the following topics as per the NCERT curriculum.
An Introduction to Excretory Products And Excretory Organs
This section of the Class 11 Chapter 19 Biology notes introduces the students to the different excretory products and how they are eliminated.
Excretory products are formed as a result of metabolic reactions in our bodies. These are various substances like ammonia, urea, carbon dioxide, water, uric acid, etc. Ammonia is the most toxic nitrogenous waste. Animals are classified as ureotelic, ammonotelic, and uricotelic based on their excretory products. Mammals are ureotelic as they excrete urea.
Various organisms possess a varied type of excretory structures. For example, contractile vacuole in paramecium, canal system in sponges, flame cells in Platyhelminthes, Malpighian tubules in insects, etc.
Human Excretory System
In this section of Class 11 Bio Ch 19 notes, students will learn in detail about the various parts of the Human Excretory System.
The human excretory system comprises kidneys, which are bean-shaped organs located in the abdominal cavity. The ureter, blood vessels, and nerves enter the kidneys through the hilum. The kidneys are divided into the outer cortex and the inner medulla. Conical masses present in the medulla are called the medullary pyramids.
The structural and functional unit of kidneys is called nephrons. Nephrons are divided into two major parts called renal corpuscle and renal tubule.
The glomerulus, together with the bowman's capsule, forms the renal corpuscle or Malpighian body. The glomerulus is the bundle of blood capillaries. The afferent arteriole brings blood towards it, and the efferent arteriole carries the blood out of it. Bowman's capsule is the cup-shaped structure that covers the glomerulus.
The renal tubules consist of the Proximal Convoluted tubule (PCT) extending to form Henle's loop, which consists of ascending and descending limbs. The ascending limb forms the Distal Convoluted Tubules (DCT), which connects to the collecting duct.
Students will also learn about the main types of nephrons: cortical nephrons and medullary nephrons.
Mechanism of Urine Formation
This portion of Biology Class 11 Chapter 19 notes covers the steps that are involved in urine formation:
1. Glomerular Filtration: The blood which enters the glomerulus is filtered, and all the nitrogenous wastes along with water move into the glomerulus. The kidneys filter about 1.2 litres of blood in a minute. The filtrate rate produced by the kidneys in a minute is called Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR).
2. Reabsorption: In this step, all the molecules, ions that may be required by the body, like glucose, amino acids, etc., are absorbed actively or passively.
3. Secretion: This step involves the secretion of hydrogen and potassium ions and ammonia into the tubules to maintain the body fluids' ionic balance.
The Function of The Tubules
In this section of Ch 19, Class 11 Bio notes students will learn about the functions of the renal tubules and their structure:
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT): PCT enables the reabsorption of most electrolytes and water. It is lined with brush border epithelium, which increases the surface area for reabsorption. It also secretes potassium ions, ammonium ions, and hydrogen ions into the filtrate to maintain the body's ionic balance.
Loop of Henle: The loop of Henle maintains the osmolarity of the body fluids. It has two limbs: descending and ascending. The ascending limb is impermeable to electrolytes but permeable to electrolytes, and significantly less reabsorption of water occurs here.
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT): In DCT, the reabsorption of water, bicarbonate ions, and sodium ions occur while potassium and sodium are secreted to regulate the ionic balance of the fluid.
Collecting Duct: Water is reabsorbed in the collecting duct to concentrate the urine, and secretion of ions like hydrogen and potassium also occurs here. It is responsible for maintaining the pH and ionic balance of the blood.
Regulation of Kidney Function
This section, Chapter 19, Class 11 Biology notes, involves details of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the kidney's proper functioning.
Hypothalamus: The disruption in the blood volume or ionic balance activates the osmoreceptors, stimulating the hypothalamus. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, which reabsorbs the water, thereby increasing the blood volume. When there is an increase in the blood volume, the same osmoreceptors are closed through the negative feedback mechanism.
RAAS (Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System): When there is a fall in glomerular blood pressure, it activates the JuxtaGlomerular Apparatus (JGA). The JGA cells then release the enzyme renin, which helps convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is converted into angiotensin II, a vasoconstrictor. As a result, the glomerular blood pressure is increased, and then this angiotensin II acts on the adrenal cortex to release a hormone called aldosterone. Aldosterone increases the absorption of water and sodium ions from the DCT.
Heart: Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF) is a hormone secreted by the heart, decreasing blood pressure by increasing vasodilation. It acts as negative feedback to the RAAS mechanism.
This section in Ch 19 Biology Class 11 Notes covers the explanation of micturition. Micturition is the process by which urine is released from the body. The Central Nervous System or CNS regulates this process.
Role of Other Organs in Excretion
Other organs like lungs, skin, and liver also play an essential role in excreting toxic substances from the body, as explained in notes of Biology Class 11 Chapter 19.
Disorders of the Excretory System
In this section of Ch 19, Class 11 Bio notes various disorders relating to the excretory system are covered. Uremia is a disorder in which excessive accumulation of urea occurs, resulting in the malfunctioning of kidneys. Acute renal failure takes place one or both the kidneys fail to function.
FAQs on Excretory Products and Their Elimination Class 11 Notes CBSE Biology Chapter 19 [Free PDF Download]
1. What is the Glomerular Filtration Rate?
Glomerular Filtration Rate, or GFR, is the amount of filtrate formed by the kidneys per minute.
2. Explain the role of the liver and lungs in the process of excretion.
Liver: The liver is the largest gland of our body and secretes substances such as bilirubin, biliverdin, cholesterol, vitamins, and drugs, which are excreted along with digestive wastes.
Lungs: Lungs help in the excretion of gaseous waste material, which CO2 from our body in very significant amounts.
3. How does the excretion of uric acid take place in birds and reptiles?
In birds and reptiles, the excretion of uric acid takes place in the following process. Firstly, mostly in the liver, uric acid is formed and then transported through the blood to the kidney. It is separated by renal tubules and stored temporarily in cloacae. Cloacal walls absorb water, which only requires a minimum amount of water for excretion. In birds, urine along with faeces is eliminated in a paste-like form. Read detailed solutions from Vedantu for Class 11 Chapter 19.
4. Differentiate between ureotelism and uricotelism.
Ureotelism is the process of elimination of the main urea. For excretion, moderate water is required. Less energy expenditure is required for the synthesis of urea. The process of elimination of mainly uric acid is known as uricotelism. For excretion, less water is required. More energy expenditure is required for the synthesis of urea.
5. Mammals are ureotelic, but birds are uricotelic. Explain?
Mammals are ureotelic animals because they eliminate nitrogen which is mainly urea. In water, it is very much soluble and for elimination, it requires a considerable amount of water. So, mammals can also form hypertonic urine, which they excrete while the birds cannot excrete urine as they are hypertonic since nitrogen occurs mainly in the form of uric acid. In water, the uric acid is insoluble and for its elimination, it does not require much water. Read detailed solutions from Vedantu for Class 11 Chapter 19.
5. Explain why skin functions as an accessory excretory organ.
In many animals, the skin retains some excretory role. There are two glands that human skin possesses for secreting fluid on its surface. They are sebum from sebaceous glands and sweat from sweat glands. To study more about the chapter students can download the NCERT Notes for Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 free of cost from the vedantu website (vedantu.com).
7. What is excretion?
The process in which metabolic wastes from the animal body is eliminated is known as excretion. It is to regulate the composition of body fluids and tissues. Waste products include ammonia, urea, uric acid, carbon dioxide, etc. To know more about it, students can download the vedantu app.