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What is Planck's Quantum Theory?

Last updated date: 19th Jul 2024
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Hint: We know that to solve this question, we need to briefly discuss the origin of the Planck Quantum Theory. Then we can discuss the as well as other test cases and uses of this theory. The problems with explaining such phenomena revolved around the nature of emission of radiation from hot bodies.

Complete answer:
Before we move forward with the solution of the given question, let us first understand some important basic concepts. Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations could satisfactorily explain the physical phenomena like interference and diffraction. Interference and diffraction of waves are caused by superimposing electromagnetic waves on each other. However, Maxwell failed to explain other phenomena like photoelectric effect. Photoelectric effect can be explained as a phenomenon wherein electrons are released from the surface of a metallic substance when a significantly strong electromagnetic radiation is made to be incident on it.
Another such phenomena are Black Body radiation. Max Planck understood these shortcomings of Maxwell’s theory and hence put forward his Quantum Theory to fill gaps in Maxwell's Theory. Planck’s quantum theory is the fundamental theory of quantum mechanics. So, it has applications in all those fields where quantum mechanics is being used. It has applications in electrical appliances, medical field quantum computing, lasers, quantum cryptography etc.
According to Planck’s quantum theory, Different atoms and molecules can emit or absorb energy in discrete quantities only. The smallest amount of energy that can be emitted or absorbed in the form of electromagnetic radiation is known as quantum. The energy of the radiation absorbed or emitted is directly proportional to the frequency of the radiation. The energy of radiation is expressed in terms of frequency as\[,\text{ }E=h\nu .\]
Where, \[E\] is the energy of tradition; \[h\] is the Planck’s constant \[(6.626\times 10-34\text{ }J.s)\] ; \[\nu \] is the frequency of radiation.

Remember that Max Planck’s quantum theory provides a detailed description of the physical properties of all substances at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It can be regarded as the foundation of all quantum physics including quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, and quantum technology and quantum information science.