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What is molecular taxonomy?

Last updated date: 17th Jul 2024
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Hint: The taxonomy is the study of classification and identification of organisms and it is a branch of science. It is of two types based on hierarchy of organisms and the other is based on the presence of chemicals.

Complete answer
Molecular taxonomy is the branch of science that deals with the presence of chemicals inside our body. It is the method of identifying and distinguishing the specimens in a fast and exact manner which is based on the interspecific variations. This helps in establishing the genetic relationship with the help of the molecular techniques between the members of various groups of taxonomy. To study different species and their genetic relationship various methods are used that include immunological methods, DNA and protein sequencing, DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA hybridization methods.
The objectives of molecular taxonomy are as follows:
1. It helps in reconstructing the genetic relationship between various species.
2. It helps in the study of evolution in a sequential manner.
3. It helps in finding the time of divergence occurring in between the various species.
Molecules used in molecular taxonomy are as follows:
1. DNA is defined to be composed of nucleotides which are single monomeric units. The structure of each nucleotide consists of three elements i.e. sugar, nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group. In DNA the sugar is called the deoxyribose sugar which has a phosphate group to its one side while a nitrogenous base to its another side.
2. RNA is defined to be composed of nucleotides that consist of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. Deoxyribose in terms of its structure is similar to ribose, but it contains an H instead of an OH at the 2′ position.
3. Genes are useful in finding out the genetic information of an individual.

The starting stone of molecular genetics was laid by the physicist Neils Bohr for the first time. The theory of the molecular taxonomy was given by various scientists Emile Zuckerkandl, Emanuel Margoliash, Linus Pauling, and Walter M. Fitch in the 1960s.