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Succession is ?

Last updated date: 20th Jul 2024
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Hint: The process of change in the species structure of an ecological system over time is known as ecological succession. After a mass extinction, the time scale can be decades or even millions of years.

Complete step by step answer:
Ecological succession is the mechanism by which a biological species evolves. It is a constant, unidirectional shift in a natural community's species composition. It is the gradual transformation of a group until it reaches equilibrium.
Primary succession: occurs in virtually lifeless areas—regions where the soil is incapable of supporting life due to factors such as lava flows, newly formed sand dunes, or rocks left behind by a receding glacier.
Secondary succession: occurs in areas where a previously existing population has been replaced. Smaller-scale disruptions that do not remove all life and nutrients from the ecosystem characterise it.
Primary succession starts in arid environments, such as bare rock exposed by a receding glacier. The first occupants are lichens or plants that can live in such conditions.
Over hundreds of years, these "pioneer organisms" turn the rock into soil capable of supporting simple plants like grasses.
These grasses further alter the soil, which is then colonised by other plant species.
Each stage modifies the habitat by changing the amount of shade and the soil composition.
A climax culture is the final stage of succession, and it is a very stable stage that can last for hundreds of years.

Ecological succession is critical for an ecosystem's growth and development. It begins the colonisation of new areas as well as the recolonization of areas that have been devastated due to biotic and climatic factors. As a result, species can adapt to changes and learn how to thrive in a changing climate.