Hint: The ecosystem is a geographical region where plants , animals and other species, as well as weather and landscape, work together to create a bubble of life. Ecosystems include biotic or living parts, as well as abiotic factors or non-living parts.
The natural ecosystem is a population of living and non-living organisms, where each part interacts as a unit through biological , physical and chemical processes.
The types of natural Ecosystem are aquatic and terrestrial
(I) Aquatic ecosystems: An ecosystem that is situated in a body of water is known as an aquatic ecosystem. The existence and characteristics of the populations of living or biotic organisms and non-living or abiotic factors interacting and interacting with each other are determined by the aquatic environment in which they depend.
Aquatic ecosystems can be primarily categorised as Marine Ecosystem and Freshwater Ecosystem.
1. Marine ecosystems: These ecosystems are the greatest of all ecosystems, since all oceans and their parts are part of them. They include salt marshes, intertidal areas, estuaries, lagoons, mangroves , coral reefs, deep seas and sea floors.
- Marine habitats have a distinct flora and fauna and host a wide variety of animals. These ecosystems are important to the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments.
2. Freshwater Ecosystem: Freshwater habitats include lakes , rivers, streams and ponds. Lakes are large bodies of freshwater that are surrounded by land.
- Plants and algae are important to the freshwater environment because they provide oxygen through photosynthesis and food for animals in the environment. Estuaries house plant life with the unusual adaptation of being able to live in fresh and salty surroundings. Mangroves and pickle weeds are examples of estuarine plants.
- Many species are found in the freshwater environment. Freshwater habitats are very important to people as they provide drinking water , energy and transport, recreation, etc.
(II) Terrestrial Ecosystem: Terrestrial habitats are the habitats that live on land. Water can be present in a terrestrial environment, but these habitats are mainly located on land. These ecosystems are of various forms, such as forest ecosystems, desert ecosystems, grasslands and mountain ecosystems.
- Terrestrial ecosystems are differentiated from marine environments by the low availability of water and the consequent importance of water as a limiting factor. These are marked by higher temperature variations on a diurnal and annual basis than in aquatic ecosystems in similar climates.
- Light availability is greater in terrestrial ecosystems than in aquatic ecosystems because the atmosphere is more visible on land than in water. The temperature and light variations in terrestrial habitats represent a completely different flora and fauna.
Note: Components facilitating natural ecosystem interactions include soil, plants, sunlight, air , water, microorganisms and animals. The sizes and characteristics of the habitats often differ and are therefore classified according to major variations.