How would you describe the steps in protein synthesis?
Hint: What does protein synthesis mean? It is simply the process where a cell makes proteins. This process occurs in two steps namely transcription and translation. The site of protein synthesis is ribosomes. Ribosomes are the minute cell organelles which are found in the cytoplasm.
Complete answer: Now, let us know the step by step process. Firstly, transcription occurs which is the process taking place inside the nucleus. In this process, DNA gets converted into mRNA in the presence of an enzyme called RNA polymerase. The initially formed RNA is in its premature form which undergoes changes to produce a mature RNA. This mature RNA is now moved into cytoplasm through the pores present on the nucleus. Now, the translation part starts in ribosomes which consists of smaller and larger subunits. This process occurs in three stages. The first stage is initiation where the smaller subunit binds to the mRNA and meanwhile, the other RNA called tRNA brings an amino acid called methionine (AUG) and binds to mRNA. As methionine is starting this process, the code AUG is called a start codon. The ribosome is the one which translates the code. Next, the larger subunit binds. Now, the second stage called elongation starts where each amino acid keeps on adding to the chain and the chain elongates by forming peptide bonds. The last stage is termination, where the process terminates i.e. stops because the ribosome is reached to stop codon and thinks that translation has completed and releases the polypeptide (protein) chain. This completes the process of protein synthesis.
Note: The protein synthesis has to occur so as to replace the lost proteins. All the hormones, enzymes present in our body are nothing but proteins. When these proteins are lost from the body for any reason, they have to be replaced again in order to maintain a balance. Hence, protein synthesis occurs.