Contraceptive pill contains A) Chemical that cause automatic abortion B) Chemical that prevent fertilisation of ovum C) Spermicidal salt D) Progesterone and estrogen
Hint: The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often termed as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control. It is designed to be taken orally by women. When taken accurately, it alters the menstrual cycle and eliminates ovulation which in turn prevents pregnancy.
Complete Answer: Contraceptive pills contain a combination of an estrogen (usually ethinylestradiol) and a progestogen (specifically a progestin). It prevents ovulation by suppressing the release of gonadotropins. Progestogen negative feedback decreases the pulse frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) which is release by the hypothalamus, decreasing the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the anterior pituitary. Decreased levels of FSH inhibit follicular development causes a decrease in estradiol levels. The progestogen negative feedback and the lack of estrogen positive feedback on LH secretion prevents a mid-cycle LH surge. Inhibition of follicular development and the absence of an LH surge eventually prevents ovulation. Estrogen was originally included in oral contraceptives for the betterment of cycle control (to stabilize the endometrium and reduce breakthrough bleeding). It was also found to inhibit follicular development and help prevent ovulation. Estrogen negative feedback on the anterior pituitary significantly decreases the secretion of FSH, which inhibits follicular development and helps prevent ovulation.
Note: The most common side effect of intake of contraceptive pills is breakthrough bleeding and amenorrhea. They also increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. Hypertension, depression, weight changes are a few of the other side effects.