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Last updated date: 04th Dec 2023
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MVSAT Dec 2023

Cloning of an animal was successfully performed for the first time in
A) Scotland
B) Austria
C) England
D) Germany

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Hint: Cloning is the process of producing individuals with identical or virtually identical DNA, either naturally or artificially. The first clone was developed in 1996.

Complete Answer:
Dolly is the name of the first clone ever created. She was cloned by Keith Campbell, Ian Wilmut and colleagues at the Roslin Institute, part of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland along with the biotechnology company PPL Therapeutics, based near Edinburgh. She was born on 5 July 1996 and died from a progressive lung disease five months before her seventh birthday (the disease was not considered related to her being a clone) on 14 February 2003.
Dolly was a sheep and had three mothers: one provided the egg, another the DNA, and a third carried the cloned embryo to term. She was created using the technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer, where the cell nucleus from an adult cell is transferred into an unfertilized oocyte whose cell nucleus was removed. The hybrid cell is then stimulated to divide by an electric shock. When it develops into a blastocyst it is implanted in a surrogate mother.

In bioethics, human cloning is forbidden, mainly due to religious sentiments. However, advocates support the development of therapeutic cloning to generate tissues and whole organs to treat patients who otherwise cannot obtain transplants, to avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs and to put off the effects of aging.