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Cisplatin compound is used in treatment of which disease?

Last updated date: 29th Feb 2024
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Hint: Cisplatin compound is a coordination compound and acts as a cytotoxic drug. It is represented as [Pt$Cl_2($NH_3$)_2$]. Its IUPAC name is dichloro diamine platinum (IV). Cisplatin is an anti-cancer (“antineoplastic” or “cytotoxic”) chemotherapy drug. This medication is classified as an “alkylating agent”.

Complete answer:
Cisplatin, a chemotherapy drug, is best known for curing testicular cancer. It is also used in the treatment of a wide range of other cancers, including lung, bladder, cervical, and ovarian cancers.
Cisplatin works by stopping the cancer cells from multiplying. It does this by binding together the strands of the cells' genetic material, DNA. DNA is needed for growth and multiplication of cells. Cisplatin damages the DNA inside the cancer cells and so prevents them from multiplying.
Cancerous tumors are characterized by cell division, which is no longer controlled as it is in normal tissue. "Normal" cells stop dividing when they come into contact with like cells, a mechanism known as contact inhibition. Cancerous cells lose this ability. Cancer cells no longer have the normal checks and balances in place that control and limit cell division. The process of cell division, whether normal or cancerous cells, is through the cell cycle. The cell cycle goes from the resting phase, through active growing phases, and then to mitosis (division).
The ability of chemotherapy to kill cancer cells depends on its ability to halt cell division. Usually, the drugs work by damaging the RNA or DNA that tells the cell how to copy itself in division. If the cells are unable to divide, they die. The faster the cells are dividing, the more likely it is that chemotherapy will kill the cells, causing the tumor to shrink. They also induce cell suicide (self-death or apoptosis).

Cisplatin causes nephrotoxicity so hydration is recommended to induce diuresis and reduce the concentration of cisplatin in the kidneys. Isotonic saline (0.9% sodium chloride) is recommended for hydration fluids, and many centers also include potassium and magnesium in these hydration fluids due to the risk of electrolyte wasting. Other side effects are nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, loss of hairs, taste changes, blood test abnormalities, low blood count, ototoxicity, peripheral neuropathy.
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