Catenation is defined as: (A) Formation of double bond between carbon atoms. (B) Linking of carbon atoms with atoms of other elements. (C) Indefinite linking of carbon atoms. (D) The formation of four covalent bonds by a carbon atom.
Hint: There are many elements that show catenation. Some of the common examples of elements that show catenation are carbon, silicon, sulphur, boron, etc. Due to catenation, there are a vast number of organic compounds in nature.
Complete answer step by step: - Catenation is the property of an element due to which it is able to form covalent bonds with other atoms of the same element to form a chain or ring of atoms. - The ability to catenate is influenced by the steric and electronic factors like electronegativity of the element, the molecular orbitals of the element and also the ability to form different types of covalent bonds. - Due to catenation, carbon is able to form covalent bonds to form longer chains and structures with other carbon atoms. - It forms long hydrocarbon chains which can have as many carbon atoms as you want and also forms rings like benzene. - It is also able to form single, double, and triple covalent bonds. - Carbon has a unique nature due to which it can form millions of organic compounds by catenation. - It shows the property of catenation to the maximum extent. - Catenation in elements also allows it to form various allotropes of a single element. - Other elements that show catenation are sulphur, silicon, boron, etc. - Sulphur can show catenation up to eight atoms in the formation of S8 molecules of sulphur. Thus, catenation can be defined as the linking of carbon atoms with atoms of other elements. Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.
Note: The tendency to catenate in the group 4 elements decrease down the group: $C>Si>Ge>Sn>Pb$. This happens because the atomic size increases down the group which decreases the strength of the covalent bond.