Assertion: Amniocentesis is often misused. Reason: Amniocentesis is being used to determine the sex of the foetus so that the female foetus may be aborted. (a) Both assertion and reason are correct and the reason is the correct explanation of assertion. (b) Both assertion and reason are correct but the reason is not the correct explanation of assertion. (c) Assertion is correct but the reason is incorrect. (d) Both assertion and reason are incorrect.
Hint: Amniocentesis is performed to check the abnormalities in the baby through the amniotic fluid present in the womb. It is mostly performed during medical termination of pregnancy to end the pregnancy before full term if the baby has any abnormalities. Amniocentesis also helps to determine the sex of the baby which results in misused into female foeticide.
Complete Answer: Amniotic fluid is present inside the womb of the mother which helps to protect the baby and also provide movement. The amniotic fluid consists of foetal cells and fetoprotein. This foetal fluid is used to test the condition of the baby especially for down syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, muscular dystrophy etc. This test is usually performed between 15-18 week of pregnancy because after the second trimester this test becomes risky for both mother and baby. As amniotic fluid consist of the foetal cell, it also helps to determine the sex of the baby, but in some places where priority is given for a male baby, this test is misused as it leads to female foeticide by abortion.
Additional Information: Amniocentesis is performed first giving the mother the anaesthetic injection after that a small area of the abdomen were cleaned, after locating the position of the foetus through ultrasound a thin needle gets inserted in the amniotic sac by taking care of the needle should be away from the baby. Then a small amount of fluid was taken out with the help of a needle which underwent a lab test. Amniocentesis is generally performed when the ultrasound report shows any abnormalities therefore it is not a common test of pregnancy.
So, the correct answer is 'Both assertion and reason are correct and the reason is the correct explanation of assertion'.
Note: Amniocentesis have the risk of miscarriage, infection and injury to baby and mother etc. Although $99\%$ of Amniocentesis is successful, only $1\%$ percent or less than $1\%$ of Amniocentesis shows a negative effect on mother and baby. The risk factor of Amniocentesis is more in that mother who carries two or more babies in the womb.