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What Are the Applications of Biotechnology in the Field of Agriculture and Medicine?

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Last updated date: 17th Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Technology which utilizes living organisms to create products and processes beneficial to society .There are various technologies to produce products and processes such as hybridization ,plant tissue culture,genetic engineering etc.

Complete Answer:-
To answer the question you must know what biotechnology is and why it has come into picture?
Application of biotechnology in Agriculture
1. GENETIC ENGINEERING:- It is Process of using r-DNA technology to modify the genetic makeup of organisms, for example formation of transgenic animals and plants.
2. ENHANCED NUTRITION:- Gives opportunities to save millions of lives from the effects of malnutrition. examples of crops produced against malnutrition include golden rice(rich in beta carotene, vitamin A).
3. TISSUE CULTURE:- Is the technique of regeneration of plants in the laboratory from disease-free planting material for crops.
4. GENETIC PESTICIDES:- A nematode meloidogyne incognita infects the root of tobacco plants and causes great reduction in field, so by using RNA interference we develop pest resistance plants that reduce the use of chemical pesticides.
Application of biotechnology in medicine:-
1. GENE THERAPY:-It is the technique of replacing a mutated gene that causes the disease with a healthy copy of the gene.
2. DNA FINGERPRINTING:- Used to identify the genetic information of person application of DNA fingerprinting including criminal investigation, paternity tests etc.
3. BIOPHARMACEUTICALS:- Making drugs (insulin, nucleic acid, vaccines etc.)insulin is the first pharmaceutical product.
4. DIAGNOSIS OF DISEASES:- There are following methods to diagnose the disease such as recombinant DNA technology, PCR, ELISA.
5. BIOPHARMACEUTICALS:- Are medical drugs produced using biotechnology these are proteins (antibodies), nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), insulin is the first pharmaceutical product.

NOTE:-
The application of biotechnology is so broad, 1995 farmers have been growing GE crops,in 2003, 7 millions of farmers in 18 countries were planting biotech crops. And in 1990 the first food product of biotechnology appeared in the market.