Courses
Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
More
Store

# Atomic Theory

Reviewed by:
Last updated date: 05th Aug 2024
Total views: 580.2k
Views today: 6.80k

The notes about Atomic theory from Vedantu are necessary for every student who has an interest in science or is studying any branch of science. The notes are easy to understand and made in a simple manner to educate the students about the atomic theory and how it came into existence. The notes first begin with the introduction which includes the meaning of atoms and famous scientist John Dalton who is known for being the first scientist who talked about the atomic theory with credibility. Then follows the various other scientists who helped in the development of the Atomic theory. The students can also find the mentioning of Aristotle’s theory of elements which completely disagrees with Dalton’s Atomic theory. The notes talk about how the Atom is divided into three parts namely protons, electrons and neutrons. The electron is the negatively charged part of the atom, the proton being the positive charge and the neutron with no charge at all. Students also need to learn the basic formula such as how to calculate the mass number of an atom and other details such as the mass number of a neutron, proton, electron, etc.

### Atomic Theory - Dalton's Theory and Thomson's Theory

The word Atom comes from the pristine Greek word “invisible”. In the 19th-century, chemists began using the term in connection with irreducible chemical elements.

According to the current theoretical model of the atom, it is a dense nucleus covered by a probabilistic "cloud" of electrons. The smallest piece of an element that maintains the identity of that element is known as an atom.

John Dalton (1766-1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist. He is known for introducing the atomic theory into physics. He is also called the creator of proposing the atomic theory. This theory explains some concept that is relevant in the observable world.

John Dalton used a basic concept for his theory: the law of conservation of mass and the law of constant composition.

According to the law of conversion of mass, the total mass available before a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass available after the chemical reaction. In other words, we can explain this theory as “mass is conserved”. The law of conservation of mass was formulated by Antoine Lavoisier in 1743 - 1794.

Atomic theory is a theory that classifies many elementary states, facts, and properties including both postulate and axiom about atoms. According to Dalton, the atomic model consists of an atom in hard spheres. According to Rutherford, the atomic model includes atoms to view in the shape of solar systems.

The Concept that Atoms Play a Major Role in Getting Formalized by the Modern Atomic Theory Consists of the Following Three Parts:-

• All matter is made from atoms.

• Atoms of the different elements are different and atoms of the same elements are the same.

• Atoms are the combination of whole numbers and ratios that are combined to form the compound.

These concepts comprise the basic building blocks of chemistry. We all know that Atom comes from the Greek word “invisible” and that atoms are composed of smaller parts known as subatomic particles. The first part to be explored was the electron. It is also known as a small subatomic particle with a negative charge. The proton is still a tiny subatomic particle with a positive charge. It is represented as P+. The Neutron is a subatomic particle with about the same mass as that of the proton but has no charge. It is represented as n or n0. Atoms have protons and neutrons in the centre and electrons in the orbit in the nucleus.

All hydrogen atoms have only one proton in their nucleus; all iron atoms have 26 protons in their nucleus. With the advancement of quantum mechanics and Schrodinger equation, the atomic theory has become an accurate mathematical science. Atomic radii are 10-8 cm. It contains three subatomic particles named electron, proton, and neutrons. The electron was discovered in the theory of cathode rays by JJ Thomson. It carried negative charges (-1.6*10-19c). Rutherford discovered protons on the basis of anode rays experiments. It carried positive charges (+1.6*10-19c). Neutrons are neutral particles and it was discovered by Chadwick. The total mass of the neutron is 1.675*10-24g or 1.008665 amu.

94 Be + 42He+ → 12 6C + 10n

An atomic number of the elements corresponds to the total number of protons available in the nucleus and the total number of electrons available in the neutron atom.

The mass number of elements = Number of protons + Number of neutrons

### The Story of Atomic Theory

Here we state the whole specification about the atomic theory. The Atomic theory is the scientific theory that defines the nature and behaviour of the Atom. The matter is composed of separate units known as Atoms. There are multiple theories given by the scientists named below:-

• Dalton's Theory

• J.J. Thomson's Theory

• Rutherford's Hypothesis

• Bohr's Theory

• Einstein, Heisenberg and Quantum Mechanics

• Quark Theory

According to this theory, everything in the world is made up of tiny particles and it is surrounded by empty space. It varies in size and shape. These particles are known as atoms. The first theory about atoms was invented by Dalton and his theory is named Dalton’s Theory. He was an English physicist, born in 1766 at Eaglesfield, Cumbria, United Kingdom.

According to Dalton’s atomic theory, every element in space is composed of small particles that are indivisible and cannot be seen by the naked eye. These particles are known as atoms. Atoms are imperishable as “Atoms cannot be made nor be destroyed by the human being”. All the elements of the atoms are identical in mass and the behaviour of the atom of one element is different from the behaviour of the atoms of all the other elements.

There were some issues in Dalton’s theory so his idea was opposed by the prominent philosophers of that time. Aristotle in that instance disagreed completely stating instead that matter involved four elements which are earth, wind, water and fire, and after that scientists followed this suit. Atomic theory was now accepted by the scientific community, but the next advancement was through the discovery by J. J. Thomson’s in the year 1897. He defined in his theory that the atoms as uniformly packed spheres of positive charges matter filled with the negatively charged electron.

Thomson won Nobel Prize for this research. But his model of the atom did not go around for long. Ernest Rutherford invented a new theory. It is known as the Rutherford model and is generally compared to Thomson’s model. According to Thomson’s model, the atom thinly dispersed positive charges and there would not be enough space to recurve the particle in any one place. The effect would have been like a wad of tennis balls punching via a thin paper screen. But while most of the particles did cross some bounced right back, suggesting that the foil was more like a thick net with a very volumetric mesh. According to Rutherford, the atoms dwell largely in empty space with just a few electrons, while mass was concentrated in the centre, which he termed as the nucleus. The Alpha particle crossed through the gaps but bounced back from the intensive, positively charged nucleus.

But the atomic theory was not complete just yet. After some time another scientist named Niels Bohr expanded on Rutherford’s nuclear model. He confirmed that electrons orbit the nucleus at fixed energies and distance and had the ability to jump from one level to other levels in their orbits. However, they cannot exist in space. Bohr’s planetary model took centre stage, but soon, it too gave rise to some difficulties. His experiment has shown that rather than simply being separate particles, electrons cumulatively behave like a wave. They are not confined to a particular point in space.

After some time, again new research came in by Werner Heisenberg. He formulated his famous uncertainty principle. According to this, it was impossible to specify both the exact position and speed of electrons as they moved around an atom. The idea was that the electrons cannot be pinpointed but they exist within a range of eventual locations giving rise to the same quantum model of the atom, a fascinating theory whose absolute implications have yet to be fully grasped.

## FAQs on Atomic Theory

1. Where can I get the notes for Atomic Theory?

The students can get the notes for Atomic Theory only at Vedantu.com for absolutely no charge applicable. These notes are easy to remember and understand and make the progress of every student skyrocket. The notes are made by our master teachers who bring you a well written, detailed description of the Atomic theory just a click away. To get access to unlimited study material available online, students just need to sign in to Vedantu.com using either the Vedantu website or the Vedantu app.

2. How can I understand Atomic theory better?

The students can understand atomic theory better if they first learn about the different terms related to atoms. They must know about the parts of an atom and their details such as their mass etc. Atom is divided into three parts, named electrons, protons and neutrons. All three are responsible for the composition of an atom out of which the smallest one is the electron.

3. What is Atomic theory?

There are variants of Atomic theory by different scientists. The students should know that the first Atomic theory was proposed by Dalton. The atomic theory mentions that everything around us is made of tiny particles called Atoms. The atomic theory helps us to understand the behaviour and properties of an Atom. The Atomic theory that was proposed by Dalton was known as Dalton’s Atomic theory and it mentions that every matter is made of these tiny particles which are unseen by the naked eye.

4. Is the Atomic theory relevant?

Dalton’s atomic theory was relevant if one focuses on the fact that it was also the first atomic theory to be proposed. Although it did lack many key points which were further resolved by J.J Thomson, who suggested that the positive charge enclosed the tiny bits of negative charges just like a plum pudding. The next model was proposed by Ernest Rutherford who

5. Why should I know about Atomic theory?

The Atomic theory is a must-know thing for all the students who wish to ace science. It is the basic concept of physics and chemistry and requires to be understood well as there are infinite questions that appear in science examinations such as school tests as well as competitive exams. It is also important to understand the other concepts of physics and chemistry as most Of them revolve around matter and atoms. To get a better knowledge of this concept, the students can also attempt questions based on atomic theory.