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The type of pollination observed in Zostera and Vallisneria respectively are ______.
A. Anemophily and hydrophily
B. Ephiydrophily and hypohydrophily
C. Hypohydrophily and epihydrophily
D. Ornithophily and hydrophily

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Hint: Pollination is the process of transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of a flower. Pollination can be carried out with the help of different agents including biotic and abiotic agents. Zostera and Vallisneria are aquatic plants.

Complete step by step solution:
Anemophily is the type of pollination in which the agent of pollination is wind. Anemophilous flowers are inconspicuous and produce dry lightweight pollen. The plants are completely terrestrial. Examples include paddy, maize, wheat, etc.
Hydrophily is the type of pollination in which water serves as the agent of pollination. It is common in submerged aquatic plants. It is classified into two types: epihydrophily and hypohydrophily.
When hydrophily takes place underwater i.e., pollination occurs underwater then the pollination is termed hypohydrophily. Examples can be seen in plants like Ceratophyllum and Zostera.
When hydrophily takes place at the water surface, then the pollination is termed epihydrophily. Examples can be seen in plants like Vallisneria where the female flower that reaches the surface of water gets pollinated when floating male flowers reach them at the surface.
Ornithophily refers to the type of pollination where birds serve as the pollinating agents. Ornithophilous flowers are large, conspicuous, and brightly coloured.
Thus, we can say, Zostera shows hypohydrophily while Vallisneria shows epihydrophily.

Hence, the correct option is (c) Hypohydrophily and epihydrophily.

Note: Pollinating agents can be animals such as insects, birds, bats; water; wind; and even plants themselves when self-pollination occurs within a closed flower. Insects’ pollination is also known as entomophily.